Where can i get cialis

Therapeutic creep in provision where can i get cialis of hypothermia for hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathyThree articles relate to the changing practices of UK clinicians in the provision of therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Lori Hage and colleagues report the clinical characteristics of term born infants treated with therapeutic hypothermia for a diagnosis of HIE in the UK between 2010 and 2017. The data came from the National Neonatal Research Database and include infants who were treated for 3 days or who died during where can i get cialis this period.

There were 5201 infants who met this definition. The number of infants treated increased year on year until 2015 and then levelled out. Markers of condition at birth suggested inclusion over time of where can i get cialis greater numbers of infants with less severe disease.

The number of infants treated with a diagnosis of mild encephalopathy increased four-fold from 31 infants per year to 133 infants per year over the study period. There was no important change in the number of infants treated with severe encephalopathy over where can i get cialis the same time period. Lara Shipley and colleagues report temporal changes in the incidence of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in the UK between the time periods 2011–13 and 2014–16.

The incidence of mild and of moderate or severe HIE remained stable between epochs suggesting that there has not been diagnostic creep driving the therapeutic creep. The proportion of infants with mild HIE who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia significantly increased over time between 2011–2013 (24.9%) and where can i get cialis 2014–2016 (35.8%). The number of late preterm infants diagnosed with HIE also remained stable over time but again the proportion treated with hypothermia increased from 34% to 47%.

This therapeutic creep, where larger numbers of infants are cooled who do not fulfil the criteria used to select infants for enrolment in the randomised controlled trials has been observed in other health systems. On the one hand it represents invasive where can i get cialis treatment that is not well supported by the evidence base. Further trials are called for to determine whether hypothermia is beneficial in milder cases.

The authors also point out that there is some is some subjectivity in the assessment of encephalopathy meaning that some clinicians don't where can i get cialis cool borderline infants where others would classify them with more severe encephalopathy. Unrelated to these articles but on the same theme we received a viewpoint from Mohamed Ali Tagin and Alastair Gunn. They argue that the criteria used to select infants for the trials were deliberately biased towards selecting infants at highest risk (and by inference not likely to have selected all infants that stand to benefit).

The individual components where can i get cialis of the inclusion criteria perform poorly and are subjective. They encourage clinicians in doubt about whether an infant should be cooled to choose cooling because there is still an appreciable risk of adverse outcome and the treatment can be delivered safely, so that the potential benefits outweigh the potential harms. They argue that the limitations of the evidence should be discussed with the families involved where can i get cialis.

Perhaps therapeutic creep will push the trials out of reach. When new treatments are shown to be effective it is understandable that clinicians are keen to use them and this makes research more difficult before we know everything we want to know. This again is a situation that would become less likely if we continue to work towards inclusive research models normalising routine where can i get cialis involvement in enhancing the knowledge base.

See pages F529, F501 and F458Methods for surfactant administrationA network meta-analysis by Ioannis Bellos and colleagues of 16 RCTs and 20 observational studies including data from more than 13 000 infants, suggests that thin catheter administration of surfactant is associated with lower rates of mortality, PVL, BPD and mechanical ventilation. See page F474The cost of neonatal abstinence syndromePhilippa Rees and colleagues estimated the direct NHS costs of neonatal unit in-patient care for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in England between 2012 and 2017 using the National Neonatal Research Database. There were 6411 admissions with this diagnosis during where can i get cialis the study period (1.6 per 1000 births) and the incidence increased over time.

The direct annual cost of care was £10 440 444, with a median cost of £7715 per infant. The median time to discharge where can i get cialis was 10.2 days and this was higher in the 49% of infants receiving pharmacotherapy. The emerging literature suggests that changes in the model of care away from neonatal unit admission could improve patient outcomes and greatly reduce costs.

See page F494Measurement of the effect of chest compressionsResuscitation council guidance advises on the depth of chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the newborn. Although it makes sense that compression where can i get cialis depth is important this is based on indirect information and extrapolation. Marlies Bruckner and colleagues developed an automated device that could deliver controlled compression depth and investigated its effect on piglets with experimental asphyxia to asystole.

Compression depth made an important difference to carotid blood flow and systolic blood pressure where can i get cialis. See page F553Face mask versus nasal prong or nasopharyngeal tube for neonatal resuscitation in the delivery roomAvneet Magnat and colleagues performed a systematic review of evidence relating to the best interface for providing respiratory support in the delivery room. They identified five randomised controlled trials involving 873 infants.

There was no difference where can i get cialis in mortality between devices. Confidence intervals for most outcomes were wide indicating the need for more data. Difference in rates of intubation in the delivery room and need for chest compressions during initial stabilisation suggest that more data may uncover clinically important differences.

It will be interesting to see how this meta-analysis changes after inclusion of data from the recently completed CORSAD trial where can i get cialis. See page F561Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Clinical scenario‘Sarah is a baby girl born by an emergency caesarean section following a period of observation for non-reassuring cardiotocographic recordings. She was where can i get cialis initially ‘flat’ and received positive pressure ventilation for 3 min before establishing spontaneous breathing.

Her Apgar scores were 1, 6 and 8 at 1, 5 and 10 min, respectively. Cord pH was 7.08 and standard base excess (sBE) was −12.1. Sarah stayed with her mother as she was breathing normally and centrally where can i get cialis pink despite being mildly hypotonic with minimal activity.

At 10 hours of age, she started to develop recurrent seizures. Cerebral MRI showed extensive diffusion restriction patterns compatible with acute hypoxic–ischaemic insult.’Sarah is a composite case, where can i get cialis developed to include real events that we and others have observed. Unfortunately, many neonatal units receive similar cases every year and they often end up not offering therapeutic hypothermia, the only available treatment with proven safety and efficacy to this condition.1 The current guidelines are not inclusive and do not consider borderline cases.2 3The simple question clinicians should ask themselves, is it unreasonable to treat a newborn with perinatal asphyxia and moderate encephalopathy?.

Babies, in a situation like Sarah, may lose the opportunity to be treated with therapeutic hypothermia because they miss a single criterion from the current cooling guidelines. The selection criteria in the where can i get cialis initial randomised controlled trials of hypothermia were developed to identify the highest risk newborns who had been exposed to hypoxia–ischaemia. Newborns who had lower levels of risk were pragmatically excluded.

Now that the evidence for benefit is well established,1 4 we propose that those entry points ….

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How to cialis copay card cite this article:Singh OP. Mental health in diverse India. Need for cialis copay card advocacy.

Indian J Psychiatry 2021;63:315-6”Unity in diversity” - That is the theme of India which we are quite proud of. We have cialis copay card diversity in terms of geography – From the Himalayas to the deserts to the seas. Every region has its own distinct culture and food.

There are so many varieties of dress and language. There is huge difference between the states in terms of cialis copay card development, attitude toward women, health infrastructure, child mortality, and other sociodemographic development indexes. There is now ample evidence that sociocultural factors influence mental health.

Compton and Shim[1] have described in their model of gene environment interaction how public policies and social norms act cialis copay card on the distribution of opportunity leading to social inequality, exclusion, poor environment, discrimination, and unemployment. This in turn leads to reduced options, poor choices, and high-risk behavior. Combining genetic vulnerability and early brain insult with low access to health care leads to poor mental health, disease, and morbidity.When we come to the field of mental cialis copay card health, we find huge differences between different states of India.

The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was markedly different while it was 5.8 and 5.1 for Assam and Uttar Pradesh at the lower end of the spectrum, it was 13.9 and 14.1 for Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra at the higher end of the spectrum. There was also a huge difference between the rural areas and metros, particularly in terms of psychosis and bipolar disorders.[2] The difference was distinct not only in the prevalence but also in the type of psychiatric disorders. While the more cialis copay card developed southern states had higher prevalence of adult-onset disorders such as depression and anxiety, the less developed northern states had more of childhood onset disorders.

This may be due to lead toxicity, nutritional status, and perinatal issues. Higher rates of depression and anxiety were found in females cialis copay card. Apart from the genetic and hormonal factors, increase was attributed to gender discrimination, violence, sexual abuse, and adverse sociocultural norms.

Marriage was cialis copay card found to be a negative prognostic indicator contrary to the western norms.[3]Cultural influences on the presentation of psychiatric disorders are apparent. Being in recessive position in the family is one of the strongest predictors of psychiatric illnesses and psychosomatic disorders. The presentation of depressive and anxiety disorders with more somatic symptoms results from inability to express due to unequal power equation in the family rather than the lack of expressions.

Apart from culture bound syndromes, the role of cultural idioms of distress in manifestations of psychiatric symptoms cialis copay card is well acknowledged.When we look into suicide data, suicide in lower socioeconomic strata (annual income <1 lakh) was 92,083, in annual income group of 1–5 lakhs, it was 41,197, and in higher income group, it was 4726. Among those who committed suicide, 67% were young adults, 34% had family problems, 23.4% of suicides occurred in daily laborers, 10.1% in unemployed persons, and 7.4% in farmers.[4]While there are huge regional differences in mental health issues, the challenges in mental health in India remain stigma reduction, conducting research on efficacy of early intervention, reaching the unreached, gender sensitive services, making quality mental healthcare accessible and available, suicide prevention, reduction of substance abuse, implementing insurance for mental health and reducing out-of-pocket expense, and finally, improving care for homeless mentally ill. All these require sustained advocacy aimed cialis copay card at promoting rights of mentally ill persons and reducing stigma and discriminations.

It consists of various actions aimed at changing the attitudinal barriers in achieving positive mental health outcomes in the general population. Psychiatrists as Mental Health Advocates There is a debate whether psychiatrists who are overburdened with clinical care could or should be involved in the advocacy activities which require skills in other areas, and sometimes, they find themselves at the receiving end of mental health advocates. We must be involved and pathways should be to build technical evidence for mapping out the problem, cost-effective cialis copay card interventions, and their efficacy.Advocacy can be done at institutional level, organizational level, and individual level.

There has been huge work done in this regard at institution level. Important research work done in this regard includes the National Mental Health Survey, National cialis copay card Survey on Extent and Pattern of Substance Use in India, Global Burden of Diseases in Indian States, and Trajectory of Brain Development. Other activities include improving the infrastructure of mental hospitals, telepsychiatry services, provision of free drugs, providing training to increase the number of service providers.

Similarly, at organizational level, the Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS) has filed a case for lacunae cialis copay card in Mental Health-care Act, 2017. Another case filed by the IPS lead to change of name of the film from “Mental Hai Kya” to “Judgemental Hai Kya.” In LGBT issue, the IPS statement was quoted in the final judgement on the decriminalization of homosexuality. The IPS has also started helplines at different levels and media interactions.

The Indian Journal of Psychiatry has also come out with editorials highlighting the need of care of marginalized population such cialis copay card as migrant laborers and persons with dementia. At an individual level, we can be involved in ensuring quality treatment, respecting dignity and rights of the patient, sensitization of staff, working with patients and caregivers to plan services, and being involved locally in media and public awareness activities.The recent experience of Brazil is an eye opener where suicide reduction resulted from direct cash transfer pointing at the role of economic decision in suicide.[5] In India where economic inequality is increasing, male-to-female ratio is abysmal in some states (877 in Haryana to 1034 in Kerala), our actions should be sensitive to this regional variation. When the enemy cialis copay card is economic inequality, our weapon is research highlighting the role of these factors on mental health.

References 1.Compton MT, Shim RS. The social determinants of cialis copay card mental health. Focus 2015;13:419-25.

2.Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V, Rao GN, Pathak K, Singh LK, et al. National Mental Health Survey cialis copay card of India, 2015-16. Prevalence, Patterns and Outcomes.

Bengaluru. National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, NIMHANS Publication No. 129.

2016. 3.Sagar R, Dandona R, Gururaj G, Dhaliwal RS, Singh A, Ferrari A, et al. The burden of mental disorders across the states of India.

The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2017. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7:148-61. 4.National Crime Records Bureau, 2019.

Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India. 2019. Available from.

Https://ncrb.gov.in. [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 24]. 5.Machado DB, Rasella D, dos Santos DN.

Impact of income inequality and other social determinants on suicide rate in Brazil. PLoS One 2015;10:e0124934. Correspondence Address:Om Prakash SinghDepartment of Psychiatry, WBMES, Kolkata, West Bengal.

AMRI Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI.

10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_635_21Abstract Sexual health, an essential component of individual's health, is influenced by many complex issues including sexual behavior, attitudes, societal, and cultural factors on the one hand and while on the other hand, biological aspects, genetic predisposition, and associated mental and physical illnesses. Sexual health is a neglected area, even though it influences mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dhat syndrome (DS), the term coined by Dr.

N. N. Wig, has been at the forefront of advancements in understanding and misunderstanding.

The concept of DS is still evolving being treated as a culture-bound syndrome in the past to a syndrome of depression and treated as “a culturally determined idiom of distress.” It is bound with myths, fallacies, prejudices, secrecy, exaggeration, and value-laden judgments. Although it has been reported from many countries, much of the literature has emanated from Asia, that too mainly from India. The research in India has ranged from the study of a few cases in the past to recent national multicentric studies concerning phenomenology and beliefs of patients.

The epidemiological studies have ranged from being hospital-based to population-based studies in rural and urban settings. There are studies on the management of individual cases by resolving sexual myths, relaxation exercises, supportive psychotherapy, anxiolytics, and antidepressants to broader and deeper research concerning cognitive behavior therapy. The presentation looks into DS as a model case highlighting the importance of exploring sexual health concerns in the Indian population in general and in particular need to reconsider DS in the light of the newly available literature.

It makes a fervent appeal for the inclusion of DS in the mainstream diagnostic categories in the upcoming revisions of the diagnostic manuals which can pave the way for a better understanding and management of DS and sexual problems.Keywords. Culture-bound syndrome, Dhat syndrome, Dhat syndrome management, Dhat syndrome prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity, sexual disordersHow to cite this article:Sathyanarayana Rao T S. History and mystery of Dhat syndrome.

A critical look at the current understanding and future directions. Indian J Psychiatry 2021;63:317-25 Introduction Mr. President, Chairpersons, my respected teachers and seniors, my professional colleagues and friends, ladies and gentlemen:I deem it a proud privilege and pleasure to receive and to deliver DLN Murti Rao Oration Award for 2020.

I am humbled at this great honor and remain grateful to the Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS) in general and the awards committee in particular. I would like to begin my presentation with my homage to Professor DLN Murti Rao, who was a Doyen of Psychiatry.[1] I have a special connection to the name as Dr. Doddaballapura Laxmi Narasimha Murti Rao, apart from a family name, obtained his medical degree from Mysore Medical College, Mysuru, India, the same city where I have served last 33 years in JSS Medical College and JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research.

His name carries the reverence in the corridors of the current National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) at Bangalore which was All India Institute of Mental Health, when he served as Head and the Medical Superintendent. Another coincidence was his untimely demise in 1962, the same year another Doyen Dr. Wig[2],[3] published the article on a common but peculiar syndrome in the Indian context and gave the name Dhat syndrome (DS).

Even though Dr. Wig is no more, his legacy of profound contribution to psychiatry and psychiatric education in general and service to the society and Mental Health, in particular, is well documented. His keen observation and study culminated in synthesizing many aspects and developments in DS.I would also like to place on record my humble pranams to my teachers from Christian Medical College, Vellore – Dr.

Abraham Varghese, the first Editor of the Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine and Dr. K. Kuruvilla, Past Editor of Indian Journal of Psychiatry whose legacies I carried forward for both the journals.

I must place on record that my journey in the field of Sexual Medicine was sown by Dr. K. Kuruvilla and subsequent influence of Dr.

Ajit Avasthi from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research from Chandigarh as my role model in the field. There are many more who have shaped and nurtured my interest in the field of sex and sexuality.The term “Dhat” was taken from the Sanskrit language, which is an important word “Dhatu” and has known several meanings such as “metal,” a “medicinal constituent,” which can be considered as most powerful material within the human body.[4] The Dhat disorder is mainly known for “loss of semen”, and the DS is a well-known “culture-bound syndrome (CBS).”[4] The DS leads to several psychosexual disorders such as physical weakness, tiredness, anxiety, appetite loss, and guilt related to the loss of semen through nocturnal emission, in urine and by masturbation as mentioned in many studies.[4],[5],[6] Conventionally, Charaka Samhita mentions “waste of bodily humors” being linked to the “loss of Dhatus.”[5] Semen has even been mentioned by Aristotle as a “soul substance” and weakness associated with its loss.[6] This has led to a plethora of beliefs about “food-blood-semen” relationship where the loss of semen is considered to reduce vitality, potency, and psychophysiological strength. People have variously attributed DS to excessive masturbation, premarital sex, promiscuity, and nocturnal emissions.

Several past studies have emphasized that CBS leads to “anxiety for loss of semen” is not only prevalent in the Indian subcontinent but also a global phenomenon.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20]It is important to note that DS manifestation and the psychosexual features are based on the impact of culture, demographic profiles, and the socioeconomic status of the patients.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] According to Leff,[21] culture depends upon norms, values, and myths, based on a specific area, and is also shared by the indigenous individuals of that area. Tiwari et al.[22] mentioned in their study that “culture is closely associated with mental disorders through social and psychological activities.” With this background, the paper attempts to highlight the multidimensional construct of DS for a better clinical understanding in routine practice. Dhat Syndrome.

A Separate Entity or a “Cultural Variant” of Depression Even though DS has been studied for years now, a consensus on the definition is yet to be achieved. It has mostly been conceptualized as a multidimensional psychosomatic entity consisting of anxiety, depressive, somatic, and sexual phenomenology. Most importantly, abnormal and erroneous attributions are considered to be responsible for the genesis of DS.

The most important debate is, however, related to the nosological status of DS. Although considered to a CBS unique to India, it has also been increasingly reported in China, Europe, Japan, Malaysia, Russia, and America.[11] The consistency and validity of its diagnosis have been consistently debated, and one of the most vital questions that emerged was. Can there be another way to conceptualize DS?.

There is no single answer to that question. Apart from an independent entity, the diagnostic validity of which has been limited in longitudinal studies,[23] it has also been a cultural variant of depressive and somatization disorders. Mumford[11] in his study of Asian patients with DS found a significant association with depressed mood, anxiety, and fatigue.

Around the same time, another study by Chadha[24] reported comorbidities in DS at a rate of 50%, 32%, and 18% related to depression, somatoform disorders, and anxiety, respectively. Depression continued to be reported as the most common association of DS in many studies.[25],[26] This “cause-effect” dilemma can never be fully resolved. Whether “loss of semen” and the cultural attributions to it leads to the affective symptoms or whether low mood and neuroticism can lead to DS in appropriate cultural context are two sides of the argument.

However, the cognitive biases resulting in the attributional errors of DS and the subsequently maintained attitudes with relation to sexuality can be explained by the depressive cognitions and concepts of learned helplessness. Balhara[27] has argued that since DS is not really culture specific as thought of earlier, it should not be solely categorized as a functional somatic syndrome, as that can have detrimental effects on its understanding and management. He also mentions that the underlying “emotional distress and cultural contexts” are not unique to DS but can be related to any psychiatric syndrome for that matter.

On the contrary, other researchers have warned that subsuming DS and other CBS under the broader rubric of “mood disorders” can lead to neglect and reductionism in disorder like DS that can have unique cultural connotations.[28] Over the years, there have been multiple propositions to relook and relabel CBS like DS. Considering it as a variant of depression or somatization can make it a “cultural phenotype” of these disorders in certain regions, thus making it easier for the classificatory systems. This dichotomous debate seems never-ending, but clinically, it is always better to err on over-diagnosing and over-treating depression and anxiety in DS, which can improve the well-being of the distressed patients.

Why Discuss Dhat Syndrome. Implications in Clinical Practice DS might occur independently or associated with multiple comorbidities. It has been a widely recognized clinical condition in various parts of the world, though considered specific to the Indian subcontinent.

The presentation can often be polymorphic with symptom clusters of affective, somatic, behavioral, and cognitive manifestations.[29] Being common in rural areas, the first contacts of the patients are frequently traditional faith healers and less often, the general practitioners. A psychiatric referral occurs much later, if at all. This leads to underdetection and faulty treatments, which can strengthen the already existing misattributions and misinformation responsible for maintaining the disorder.

Furthermore, depression and sexual dysfunction can be the important comorbidities that if untreated, lead to significant psychosocial dysfunction and impaired quality of life.[30] Besides many patients of DS believe that their symptoms are due to failure of interpersonal relationships, s, and heredity, which might cause early death and infertility. This contributes to the vicious cycle of fear and panic.[31] Doctor shopping is another challenge and failure to detect and address the concern of DS might lead to dropping out from the care.[15] Rao[17] in their epidemiological study reported 12.5% prevalence in the general population, with 20.5% and 50% suffering from comorbid depression and sexual disorders. The authors stressed upon the importance of early detection of DS for the psychosexual and social well-being.

Most importantly, the multidimensional presentation of DS can at certain times be a facade overshadowing underlying neurotic disorders (anxiety, depression, somatoform, hypochondriasis, and phobias), obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders and body dysmorphic disorders, delusional disorders, sexual disorders (premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction) and infectious disorders (urinary tract s, sexually transmitted diseases), and even stress-related manifestations in otherwise healthy individuals.[4],[14],[15] This significant overlap of symptomatology, increased prevalence, and marked comorbidity make it all the more important for physicians to make sense out of the construct of DS. That can facilitate prompt detection and management of DS in routine clinical practice.In an earlier review study, it was observed that few studies are undertaken to update the research works from published articles as an updated review, systemic review, world literature review, etc., on DS and its management approach.[29],[32],[33],[34],[35] The present paper attempts to compile the evidence till date on DS related to its nosology, critique, manifestations, and management plan. The various empirical studies on DS all over the world will be briefly discussed along with the implications and importance of the syndrome.

The Construct of Dhat Syndrome. Summary of Current Evidence DS is a well-known CBS, which is defined as undue concern about the weakening effects after the passage of semen in urine or through nocturnal emission that has been stated by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10).[36] It is also known as “semen loss syndrome” by Shakya,[20] which is prevalent mainly in the Indian subcontinent[37] and has also been reported in the South-Eastern and western population.[15],[16],[20],[32],[38],[39],[40],[41] Individuals with “semen loss anxiety” suffer from a myriad of psychosexual symptoms, which have been attributed to “loss of vital essence through semen” (common in South Asia).[7],[15],[16],[17],[32],[37],[41],[42],[43] The various studies related to attributes of DS and their findings are summarized further.Prakash et al.[5] studied 100 DS patients through 139 symptoms of the Associated Symptoms Scale. They studied sociodemographic profile, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Postgraduate Institute Neuroticism Scale.

The study found a wide range of physical, anxiety, depression, sexual, and cognitive symptoms. Most commonly associated symptoms were found as per score ≥1. This study reported several parameters such as the “sense of being unhealthy” (99%), worry (99%), feeling “no improvement despite treatment” (97%), tension (97%), tiredness (95%), fatigue (95%), weakness (95%), and anxiety (95%).

The common sexual disorders were observed as loss of masculinity (83%), erectile dysfunction (54%), and premature ejaculation (53%). Majority of patients had faced mild or moderate level of symptoms in which 47% of the patients reported severe weakness. Overall distress and dysfunction were observed as 64% and 81% in the studied subjects, respectively.A study in Taiwan involved 87 participants from a Urology clinic.

Most of them have sexual neurosis (Shen-K'uei syndrome).[7] More than one-third of the patients belonged to lower social class and symptoms of depression, somatization, anxiety, masturbation, and nocturnal emissions. Other bodily complaints as reported were sleep disturbances, fatigue, dizziness, backache, and weakness. Nearly 80% of them considered that all of their problems were due to masturbatory practices.De Silva and Dissanayake[8] investigated several manifestations on semen loss syndrome in the psychiatric clinic of Colombo General Hospital, Sri Lanka.

Beliefs regarding effects of semen loss and help-seeking sought for DS were explored. 38 patients were studied after psychiatrically ill individuals and those with organic disorders were excluded. Duration of semen loss varied from 1 to 20 years.

Every participant reported excessive loss of semen and was preoccupied with it. The common forms of semen loss were through nocturnal emission, masturbation, urinary loss, and through sexual activities. Most of them reported multiple modes of semen loss.

Masturbatory frequency and that of nocturnal emissions varied significantly. More than half of the patients reported all types of complaints (psychological, sexual, somatic, and genital).In the study by Chadda and Ahuja,[9] 52 psychiatric patients (mostly adolescents and young adults) complained of passing “Dhat” in urine. They were assessed for a period of 6 months.

More than 80% of them complained of body weakness, aches, and pains. More than 50% of the patients suffered from depression and anxiety. All the participants felt that their symptoms were due to loss of “dhat” in urine, attributed to excessive masturbation, extramarital and premarital sex.

Half of those who faced sexual dysfunctions attributed them to semen loss.Mumford[11] proposed a controversial explanation of DS arguing that it might be a part of other psychiatric disorders, like depression. A total of 1000 literate patients were recruited from a medical outdoor in a public sector hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. About 600 educated patients were included as per Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI).

Men with DS reported greater symptoms on BSI than those without DS. 60 psychiatric patients were also recruited from the same hospital and diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R. Among them, 33% of the patients qualified for “Dhat” items on BSI.

The symptoms persisted for more than 15 days. It was observed that symptoms of DS highly correlated with BSI items, namely erectile dysfunction, burning sensation during urination, fatigue, energy loss, and weakness. This comparative study indicated that patients with DS suffered more from depressive disorders than without DS and the age group affected by DS was mostly the young.Grover et al.[15] conducted a study on 780 male patients aged >16 years in five centers (Chandigarh, Jaipur, Faridkot, Mewat, and New Delhi) of Northern India, 4 centers (2 from Kolkata, 1 each in Kalyani and Bhubaneswar) of Eastern India, 2 centers (Agra and Lucknow) of Central India, 2 centers (Ahmedabad and Wardha) of Western India, and 2 centers of Southern India (both located at Mysore) spread across the country by using DS questionnaire.

Nearly one-third of the patients were passing “Dhat” multiple times a week. Among them, nearly 60% passed almost a spoonful of “Dhat” each time during a loss. This work on sexual disorders reported that the passage of “Dhat” was mostly attributed to masturbation (55.1%), dreams on sex (47.3%), sexual desire (42.8%), and high energy foods consumption (36.7%).

Mostly, the participants experienced passage of Dhat as “night falls” (60.1%) and “while passing stools” (59.5%). About 75.6% showed weakness in sexual ability as a common consequence of the “loss of Dhat.” The associated symptoms were depression, hopelessness, feeling low, decreased energy levels, weakness, and lack of pleasure. Erectile problems and premature ejaculation were also present.Rao[17] in his first epidemiological study done in Karnataka, India, showed the prevalence rate of DS in general male population as 12.5%.

It was found that 57.5% were suffering either from comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric and sexual disorders was about three times higher with DS compared to non-DS subjects. One-third of the cases (32.8%) had no comorbidity in hospital (urban).

One-fifth (20.5%) and 50% subjects (51.3%) had comorbid depressive disorders and sexual dysfunction. The psychosexual symptoms were found among 113 patients who had DS. The most common psychological symptoms reported by the subjects with DS were low self-esteem (100%), loss of interest in any activity (95.60%), feeling of guilt (92.00%), and decreased social interaction (90.30%).

In case of sexual disorders, beliefs were held commonly about testes becoming smaller (92.00%), thinness of semen (86.70%), decreased sexual capabilities (83.20%), and tilting of penis (70.80%).Shakya[20] studied a clinicodemographic profile of DS patients in psychiatry outpatient clinic of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

A total of 50 subjects were included in this study, and the psychiatric diagnoses as well as comorbidities were investigated as per the ICD-10 criteria. Among the subjects, most of the cases had symptoms of depression and anxiety, and all the subjects were worried about semen loss. Somehow these subjects had heard or read that semen loss or masturbation is unhealthy practice.

The view of participants was that semen is very “precious,” needs preservation, and masturbation is a malpractice. Beside DS, two-thirds of the subjects had comorbid depression.In another Indian study, Chadda et al.[24] compared patients with DS with those affected with neurotic/depressive disorders. Among 100 patients, 50%, 32%, and 18% reported depression, somatic problems, and anxiety, respectively.

The authors argued that cases of DS have similar symptom dimensions as mood and anxiety disorders.Dhikav et al.[31] examined prevalence and management depression comorbid with DS. DSM-IV and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used for assessments. About 66% of the patients met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of depression.

They concluded that depression was a frequent comorbidity in DS patients.In a study by Perme et al.[37] from South India that included 32 DS patients, the control group consisted of 33 people from the same clinic without DS, depression, and anxiety. The researchers followed the guidelines of Bhatia and Malik's for the assessment of primary complaints of semen loss through “nocturnal emissions, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and passing of semen before and after urine.” The assessment was done based on several indices, namely “Somatization Screening Index, Illness Behavior Questionnaire, Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Whitley Index, and Revised Chalder Fatigue Scale.” Several complaints such as somatic complaints, hypochondriacal beliefs, and fatigue were observed to be significantly higher among patients with DS compared to the control group.A study conducted in South Hall (an industrial area in the borough of Middlesex, London) included Indian and Pakistani immigrants. Young men living separately from their wives reported promiscuity, some being infected with gonorrhea and syphilis.

Like other studies, nocturnal emission, weakness, and impotency were the other reported complaints. Semen was considered to be responsible for strength and vigor by most patients. Compared to the sexual problems of Indians, the British residents complained of pelvic issues and backache.In another work, Bhatia et al.[42] undertook a study on culture-bound syndromes and reported that 76.7% of the sample had DS followed by possession syndrome and Koro (a genital-related anxiety among males in South-East Asia).

Priyadarshi and Verma[43] performed a study in Urology Department of S M S Hospital, Jaipur, India. They conducted the study among 110 male patients who complained of DS and majority of them were living alone (54.5%) or in nuclear family (30%) as compared to joint family. Furthermore, 60% of them reported of never having experienced sex.Nakra et al.[44] investigated incidence and clinical features of 150 consecutive patients who presented with potency complaints in their clinic.

Clinical assessments were done apart from detailed sexual history. The patients were 15–50 years of age, educated up to mid-school and mostly from a rural background. Most of them were married and reported premarital sexual practices, while nearly 67% of them practiced masturbation from early age.

There was significant guilt associated with nocturnal emissions and masturbation. Nearly 27% of the cases reported DS-like symptoms attributing their health problems to semen loss.Behere and Nataraj[45] reported that majority of the patients with DS presented with comorbidities of physical weakness, anxiety, headache, sad mood, loss of appetite, impotence, and premature ejaculation. The authors stated that DS in India is a symptom complex commonly found in younger age groups (16–23 years).

The study subjects presented with complaints of whitish discharge in urine and believed that the loss of semen through masturbation was the reason for DS and weakness.Singh et al.[46] studied 50 cases with DS and sexual problems (premature ejaculation and impotence) from Punjab, India, after exclusion of those who were psychiatrically ill. It was assumed in the study that semen loss is considered synonymous to “loss of something precious”, hence its loss would be associated with low mood and grief. Impotency (24%), premature ejaculation (14%), and “Dhat” in urine (40%) were the common complaints observed.

Patients reported variety of symptoms including anxiety, depression, appetite loss, sleep problems, bodily pains, and headache. More than half of the patients were independently diagnosed with depression, and hence, the authors argued that DS may be a manifestation of depressive disorders.Bhatia and Malik[47] reported that the most common complaints associated with DS were physical weakness, fatigue and palpitation, insomnia, sad mood, headache, guilt feeling and suicidal ideation, impotence, and premature ejaculation. Psychiatric disorders were found in 69% of the patients, out of which the most common was depression followed by anxiety, psychosis, and phobia.

About 15% of the patients were found to have premature ejaculation and 8% had impotence.Bhatia et al.[48] examined several biological variables of DS after enrolment of 40 patients in a psychosexual clinic in Delhi. Patients had a history of impotence, premature ejaculation, and loss of semen (after exclusion of substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders). Twenty years was the mean age of onset and semen loss was mainly through masturbation and sexual intercourse.

67.5% and 75% of them reported sexual disorders and psychiatric comorbidity while 25%, 12.5%, and 37.5% were recorded to suffer from ejaculatory impotence, premature ejaculation, and depression (with anxiety), respectively.Bhatia[49] conducted a study on CBS among 60 patients attending psychiatric outdoor in a teaching hospital. The study revealed that among all patients with CBSs, DS was the most common (76.7%) followed by possession syndrome (13.3%) and Koro (5%). Hypochondriasis, sexually transmitted diseases, and depression were the associated comorbidities.

Morrone et al.[50] studied 18 male patients with DS in the Dermatology department who were from Bangladesh and India. The symptoms observed were mainly fatigue and nonspecific somatic symptoms. DS patients manifested several symptoms in psychosocial, religious, somatic, and other domains.

The reasons provided by the patients for semen loss were urinary loss, nocturnal emission, and masturbation. Dhat Syndrome. The Epidemiology The typical demographic profile of a DS patient has been reported to be a less educated, young male from lower socioeconomic status and usually from rural areas.

In the earlier Indian studies by Carstairs,[51],[52],[53] it was observed that majority of the cases (52%–66.7%) were from rural areas, belonged to “conservative families and posed rigid views about sex” (69%-73%). De Silva and Dissanayake[8] in their study on semen loss syndrome reported the average age of onset of DS to be 25 years with most of them from lower-middle socioeconomic class. Chadda and Ahuja[9] studied young psychiatric patients who complained of semen loss.

They were mainly manual laborers, farmers, and clerks from low socioeconomic status. More than half were married and mostly uneducated. Khan[13] studied DS patients in Pakistan and reported that majority of the patients visited Hakims (50%) and Homeopaths (24%) for treatment.

The age range was wide between 12 and 65 years with an average age of 24 years. Among those studied, majority were unmarried (75%), literacy was up to matriculation and they belonged to lower socioeconomic class. Grover et al.[15] in their study of 780 male subjects showed the average age of onset to be 28.14 years and the age ranged between 21 and 30 years (55.3%).

The subjects were single or unmarried (51.0%) and married (46.7%). About 23.5% of the subjects had graduated and most were unemployed (73.5%). Majority of subjects were lower-middle class (34%) and had lower incomes.

Rao[17] studied 907 subjects, in which majority were from 18 to 30 years (44.5%). About 45.80% of the study subjects were illiterates and very few had completed postgraduation. The subjects were both married and single.

Majority of the subjects were residing in nuclear family (61.30%) and only 0.30% subjects were residing alone. Most of the patients did not have comorbid addictive disorders. The subjects were mainly engaged in agriculture (43.40%).

Majority of the subjects were from lower middle and upper lower socioeconomic class.Shakya[20] had studied the sociodemographic profile of 50 patients with DS. The average age of the studied patients was 25.4 years. The age ranges in decreasing order of frequency were 16–20 years (34%) followed by 21–25 years (28%), greater than 30 years (26%), 26–30 years (10%), and 11–15 years (2%).

Further, the subjects were mostly students (50%) and rest were in service (26%), farmers (14%), laborers (6%), and business (4%), respectively. Dhikav et al.[31] conducted a study on 30 patients who had attended the Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of frequently passing semen in urine. In the studied patients, the age ranged between 20 and 40 years with an average age of 29 years and average age of onset of 19 years.

The average duration of illness was that of 11 months. Most of the studied patients were unmarried (64.2%) and educated till middle or high school (70%). Priyadarshi and Verma[43] performed a study in 110 male patients with DS.

The average age of the patients was 23.53 years and it ranged between 15 and 68 years. The most affected age group of patients was of 18–25 years, which comprised about 60% of patients. On the other hand, about 25% ranged between 25 and 35 years, 10% were lesser than 18 years of age, and 5.5% patients were aged >35 years.

Higher percentage of the patients were unmarried (70%). Interestingly, high prevalence of DS was found in educated patients and about 50% of patients were graduate or above but most of the patients were either unemployed or student (49.1%). About 55% and 24.5% patients showed monthly family income of <10,000 and 5000 Indian Rupees (INR), respectively.

Two-third patients belonged to rural areas of residence. Behere and Nataraj[45] found majority of the patients with DS (68%) to be between 16 and 25 years age. About 52% patients were married while 48% were unmarried and from lower socioeconomic strata.

The duration of DS symptoms varied widely. Singh[46] studied patients those who reported with DS, impotence, and premature ejaculation and reported the average age of the affected to be 21.8 years with a younger age of onset. Only a few patients received higher education.

Bhatia and Malik[47] as mentioned earlier reported that age at the time of onset of DS ranged from 16 to 24 years. More than half of them were single. It was observed that most patients had some territorial education (91.67%) but few (8.33%) had postgraduate education or professional training.

Finally, Bhatia et al.[48] studied cases of sexual dysfunctions and reported an average age of 21.6 years among the affected, majority being unmarried (80%). Most of those who had comorbid DS symptoms received minimal formal education. Management.

A Multimodal Approach As mentioned before, individuals affected with DS often seek initial treatment with traditional healers, practitioners of alternative medicine, and local quacks. As a consequence, varied treatment strategies have been popularized. Dietary supplements, protein and iron-rich diet, Vitamin B and C-complexes, antibiotics, multivitamin injections, herbal “supplements,” etc., have all been used in the treatment though scientific evidence related to them is sparse.[33] Frequent change of doctors, irregular compliance to treatment, and high dropout from health care are the major challenges, as the attributional beliefs toward DS persist in the majority even after repeated reassurance.[54] A multidisciplinary approach (involving psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers) is recommended and close liaison with the general physicians, the Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy practitioners, dermatologists, venereologists, and neurologists often help.

The role of faith healers and local counselors is vital, and it is important to integrate them into the care of DS patients, rather than side-tracking them from the system. Community awareness needs to be increased especially in primary health care for early detection and appropriate referrals. Follow-up data show two-thirds of patients affected with DS recovering with psychoeducation and low-dose sedatives.[45] Bhatia[49] studied 60 cases of DS and reported better response to anti-anxiety and antidepressant medications compared to psychotherapy alone.

Classically, the correction of attributional biases through empathy, reflective, and nonjudgmental approaches has been proposed.[38] Over the years, sex education, psychotherapy, psychoeducation, relaxation techniques, and medications have been advocated in the management of DS.[9],[55] In psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral and brief solution-focused approaches are useful to target the dysfunctional assumptions and beliefs in DS. The role of sex education is vital involving the basic understanding of sexual anatomy and physiology of sexuality. This needs to be tailored to the local terminology and beliefs.

Biofeedback has also been proposed as a treatment modality.[4] Individual stress factors that might have precipitated DS need to be addressed. A detailed outline of assessment, evaluation, and management of DS is beyond the scope of this article and has already been reported in the IPS Clinical Practice Guidelines.[56] The readers are referred to these important guidelines for a comprehensive read on management. Probably, the most important factor is to understand and resolve the sociocultural contexts in the genesis of DS in each individual.

Adequate debunking of the myths related to sexuality and culturally appropriate sexual education is vital both for the prevention and treatment of DS.[56] Adequate treatment of comorbidities such as depression and anxiety often helps in reduction of symptoms, more so when the DS is considered to be a manifestation of the same. Future of Dhat Syndrome. The Way Forward Classifications in psychiatry have always been fraught with debates and discussion such as categorical versus dimensional, biological versus evolutionary.

CBS like DS forms a major area of this nosological controversy. Longitudinal stability of a diagnosis is considered to be an important part of its independent categorization. Sameer et al.[23] followed up DS patients for 6.0 ± 3.5 years and concluded that the “pure” variety of DS is not a stable diagnostic entity.

The authors rather proposed DS as a variant of somatoform disorder, with cultural explanations. The right “place” for DS in classification systems has mostly been debated and theoretically fluctuant.[14] Sridhar et al.[57] mentioned the importance of reclassifying DS from a clinically, phenomenologically, psycho-pathologically, and diagnostically valid standpoint. Although both ICD and DSM have been culturally sensitive to classification, their approach to DS has been different.

While ICD-10 considers DS under “other nonpsychotic mental disorders” (F48), DSM-V mentions it only in appendix section as “cultural concepts of distress” not assigning the condition any particular number.[12],[58] Fundamental questions have actually been raised about its separate existence altogether,[35] which further puts its diagnostic position in doubt. As discussed in the earlier sections, an alternate hypothesization of DS is a cultural variant of depression, rather than a “true syndrome.”[27] Over decades, various schools of thought have considered DS either to be a global phenomenon or a cultural “idiom” of distress in specific geographical regions or a manifestation of other primary psychiatric disorders.[59] Qualitative studies in doctors have led to marked discordance in their opinion about the validity and classificatory area of DS.[60] The upcoming ICD-11 targets to pay more importance to cultural contexts for a valid and reliable classification. However, separating the phenomenological boundaries of diseases might lead to subsetting the cultural and contextual variants in broader rubrics.[61],[62] In that way, ICD-11 might propose alternate models for distinction of CBS like DS at nosological levels.[62] It is evident that various factors include socioeconomics, acceptability, and sustainability influence global classificatory systems, and this might influence the “niche” of DS in the near future.

It will be interesting to see whether it retains its diagnostic independence or gets subsumed under the broader “narrative” of depression. In any case, uniformity of diagnosing this culturally relevant yet distressing and highly prevalent condition will remain a major area related to psychiatric research and treatment. Conclusion DS is a multidimensional psychiatric “construct” which is equally interesting and controversial.

Historically relevant and symptomatically mysterious, this disorder provides unique insights into cultural contexts of human behavior and the role of misattributions, beliefs, and misinformation in sexuality. Beyond the traditional debate about its “separate” existence, the high prevalence of DS, associated comorbidities, and resultant dysfunction make it relevant for emotional and psychosexual health. It is also treatable, and hence, the detection, understanding, and awareness become vital to its management.

This oration attempts a “bird's eye” view of this CBS taking into account a holistic perspective of the available evidence so far. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic and epidemiological attributes, management, and nosological controversies are highlighted to provide a comprehensive account of DS and its relevance to mental health. More systematic and mixed methods research are warranted to unravel the enigma of this controversial yet distressing psychiatric disorder.AcknowledgmentI sincerely thank Dr.

Debanjan Banerjee (Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore) for his constant selfless support, rich academic discourse, and continued collaboration that helped me condense years of research and ideas into this paper.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest. References 1.2.3.Srinivasa Murthy R, Wig NN. A man ahead of his time.

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Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2018;34 Suppl S1:1-4. Correspondence Address:T S Sathyanarayana RaoDepartment of Psychiatry, JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore - 570 004, Karnataka IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest.

NoneDOI. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_791_20.

How to cite this where can i get cialis article:Singh OP. Mental health in diverse India. Need for where can i get cialis advocacy. Indian J Psychiatry 2021;63:315-6”Unity in diversity” - That is the theme of India which we are quite proud of.

We have where can i get cialis diversity in terms of geography – From the Himalayas to the deserts to the seas. Every region has its own distinct culture and food. There are so many varieties of dress and language. There is huge difference between the states in terms of development, attitude toward women, health infrastructure, child mortality, and other sociodemographic where can i get cialis development indexes.

There is now ample evidence that sociocultural factors influence mental health. Compton and Shim[1] have described in their model of gene environment interaction how public policies and social norms act on the distribution of opportunity leading to social inequality, exclusion, where can i get cialis poor environment, discrimination, and unemployment. This in turn leads to reduced options, poor choices, and high-risk behavior. Combining genetic vulnerability and early brain insult with low access to health care leads to poor mental health, disease, and morbidity.When we where can i get cialis come to the field of mental health, we find huge differences between different states of India.

The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was markedly different while it was 5.8 and 5.1 for Assam and Uttar Pradesh at the lower end of the spectrum, it was 13.9 and 14.1 for Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra at the higher end of the spectrum. There was also a huge difference between the rural areas and metros, particularly in terms of psychosis and bipolar disorders.[2] The difference was distinct not only in the prevalence but also in the type of psychiatric disorders. While the more developed southern states had higher prevalence of adult-onset disorders such as depression and anxiety, the less developed northern states where can i get cialis had more of childhood onset disorders. This may be due to lead toxicity, nutritional status, and perinatal issues.

Higher rates of depression and anxiety were found in females where can i get cialis. Apart from the genetic and hormonal factors, increase was attributed to gender discrimination, violence, sexual abuse, and adverse sociocultural norms. Marriage was found to be a negative prognostic indicator contrary to the western norms.[3]Cultural influences on the presentation of psychiatric where can i get cialis disorders are apparent. Being in recessive position in the family is one of the strongest predictors of psychiatric illnesses and psychosomatic disorders.

The presentation of depressive and anxiety disorders with more somatic symptoms results from inability to express due to unequal power equation in the family rather than the lack of expressions. Apart from where can i get cialis culture bound syndromes, the role of cultural idioms of distress in manifestations of psychiatric symptoms is well acknowledged.When we look into suicide data, suicide in lower socioeconomic strata (annual income <1 lakh) was 92,083, in annual income group of 1–5 lakhs, it was 41,197, and in higher income group, it was 4726. Among those who committed suicide, 67% were young adults, 34% had family problems, 23.4% of suicides occurred in daily laborers, 10.1% in unemployed persons, and 7.4% in farmers.[4]While there are huge regional differences in mental health issues, the challenges in mental health in India remain stigma reduction, conducting research on efficacy of early intervention, reaching the unreached, gender sensitive services, making quality mental healthcare accessible and available, suicide prevention, reduction of substance abuse, implementing insurance for mental health and reducing out-of-pocket expense, and finally, improving care for homeless mentally ill. All these where can i get cialis require sustained advocacy aimed at promoting rights of mentally ill persons and reducing stigma and discriminations.

It consists of various actions aimed at changing the attitudinal barriers in achieving positive mental health outcomes in the general population. Psychiatrists as Mental Health Advocates There is a debate whether psychiatrists who are overburdened with clinical care could or should be involved in the advocacy activities which require skills in other areas, and sometimes, they find themselves at the receiving end of mental health advocates. We must be involved and pathways should be to build technical evidence for mapping out where can i get cialis the problem, cost-effective interventions, and their efficacy.Advocacy can be done at institutional level, organizational level, and individual level. There has been huge work done in this regard at institution level.

Important research work done in this regard includes the National Mental Health Survey, National Survey on Extent and where can i get cialis Pattern of Substance Use in India, Global Burden of Diseases in Indian States, and Trajectory of Brain Development. Other activities include improving the infrastructure of mental hospitals, telepsychiatry services, provision of free drugs, providing training to increase the number of service providers. Similarly, at organizational level, the Indian where can i get cialis Psychiatric Society (IPS) has filed a case for lacunae in Mental Health-care Act, 2017. Another case filed by the IPS lead to change of name of the film from “Mental Hai Kya” to “Judgemental Hai Kya.” In LGBT issue, the IPS statement was quoted in the final judgement on the decriminalization of homosexuality.

The IPS has also started helplines at different levels and media interactions. The Indian Journal of Psychiatry has also come out with editorials highlighting where can i get cialis the need of care of marginalized population such as migrant laborers and persons with dementia. At an individual level, we can be involved in ensuring quality treatment, respecting dignity and rights of the patient, sensitization of staff, working with patients and caregivers to plan services, and being involved locally in media and public awareness activities.The recent experience of Brazil is an eye opener where suicide reduction resulted from direct cash transfer pointing at the role of economic decision in suicide.[5] In India where economic inequality is increasing, male-to-female ratio is abysmal in some states (877 in Haryana to 1034 in Kerala), our actions should be sensitive to this regional variation. When the enemy is economic inequality, our weapon is research highlighting the role of these factors on where can i get cialis mental health.

References 1.Compton MT, Shim RS. The social determinants where can i get cialis of mental health. Focus 2015;13:419-25. 2.Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V, Rao GN, Pathak K, Singh LK, et al.

National Mental Health where can i get cialis Survey of India, 2015-16. Prevalence, Patterns and Outcomes. Bengaluru. National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, NIMHANS Publication No.

129. 2016. 3.Sagar R, Dandona R, Gururaj G, Dhaliwal RS, Singh A, Ferrari A, et al. The burden of mental disorders across the states of India.

The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2017. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7:148-61. 4.National Crime Records Bureau, 2019. Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India.

2019. Available from. Https://ncrb.gov.in. [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 24].

5.Machado DB, Rasella D, dos Santos DN. Impact of income inequality and other social determinants on suicide rate in Brazil. PLoS One 2015;10:e0124934. Correspondence Address:Om Prakash SinghDepartment of Psychiatry, WBMES, Kolkata, West Bengal.

AMRI Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_635_21Abstract Sexual health, an essential component of individual's health, is influenced by many complex issues including sexual behavior, attitudes, societal, and cultural factors on the one hand and while on the other hand, biological aspects, genetic predisposition, and associated mental and physical illnesses.

Sexual health is a neglected area, even though it influences mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dhat syndrome (DS), the term coined by Dr. N. N.

Wig, has been at the forefront of advancements in understanding and misunderstanding. The concept of DS is still evolving being treated as a culture-bound syndrome in the past to a syndrome of depression and treated as “a culturally determined idiom of distress.” It is bound with myths, fallacies, prejudices, secrecy, exaggeration, and value-laden judgments. Although it has been reported from many countries, much of the literature has emanated from Asia, that too mainly from India. The research in India has ranged from the study of a few cases in the past to recent national multicentric studies concerning phenomenology and beliefs of patients.

The epidemiological studies have ranged from being hospital-based to population-based studies in rural and urban settings. There are studies on the management of individual cases by resolving sexual myths, relaxation exercises, supportive psychotherapy, anxiolytics, and antidepressants to broader and deeper research concerning cognitive behavior therapy. The presentation looks into DS as a model case highlighting the importance of exploring sexual health concerns in the Indian population in general and in particular need to reconsider DS in the light of the newly available literature. It makes a fervent appeal for the inclusion of DS in the mainstream diagnostic categories in the upcoming revisions of the diagnostic manuals which can pave the way for a better understanding and management of DS and sexual problems.Keywords.

Culture-bound syndrome, Dhat syndrome, Dhat syndrome management, Dhat syndrome prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity, sexual disordersHow to cite this article:Sathyanarayana Rao T S. History and mystery of Dhat syndrome. A critical look at the current understanding and future directions. Indian J Psychiatry 2021;63:317-25 Introduction Mr.

President, Chairpersons, my respected teachers and seniors, my professional colleagues and friends, ladies and gentlemen:I deem it a proud privilege and pleasure to receive and to deliver DLN Murti Rao Oration Award for 2020. I am humbled at this great honor and remain grateful to the Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS) in general and the awards committee in particular. I would like to begin my presentation with my homage to Professor DLN Murti Rao, who was a Doyen of Psychiatry.[1] I have a special connection to the name as Dr. Doddaballapura Laxmi Narasimha Murti Rao, apart from a family name, obtained his medical degree from Mysore Medical College, Mysuru, India, the same city where I have served last 33 years in JSS Medical College and JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research.

His name carries the reverence in the corridors of the current National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) at Bangalore which was All India Institute of Mental Health, when he served as Head and the Medical Superintendent. Another coincidence was his untimely demise in 1962, the same year another Doyen Dr. Wig[2],[3] published the article on a common but peculiar syndrome in the Indian context and gave the name Dhat syndrome (DS). Even though Dr.

Wig is no more, his legacy of profound contribution to psychiatry and psychiatric education in general and service to the society and Mental Health, in particular, is well documented. His keen observation and study culminated in synthesizing many aspects and developments in DS.I would also like to place on record my humble pranams to my teachers from Christian Medical College, Vellore – Dr. Abraham Varghese, the first Editor of the Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine and Dr. K.

Kuruvilla, Past Editor of Indian Journal of Psychiatry whose legacies I carried forward for both the journals. I must place on record that my journey in the field of Sexual Medicine was sown by Dr. K. Kuruvilla and subsequent influence of Dr.

Ajit Avasthi from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research from Chandigarh as my role model in the field. There are many more who have shaped and nurtured my interest in the field of sex and sexuality.The term “Dhat” was taken from the Sanskrit language, which is an important word “Dhatu” and has known several meanings such as “metal,” a “medicinal constituent,” which can be considered as most powerful material within the human body.[4] The Dhat disorder is mainly known for “loss of semen”, and the DS is a well-known “culture-bound syndrome (CBS).”[4] The DS leads to several psychosexual disorders such as physical weakness, tiredness, anxiety, appetite loss, and guilt related to the loss of semen through nocturnal emission, in urine and by masturbation as mentioned in many studies.[4],[5],[6] Conventionally, Charaka Samhita mentions “waste of bodily humors” being linked to the “loss of Dhatus.”[5] Semen has even been mentioned by Aristotle as a “soul substance” and weakness associated with its loss.[6] This has led to a plethora of beliefs about “food-blood-semen” relationship where the loss of semen is considered to reduce vitality, potency, and psychophysiological strength. People have variously attributed DS to excessive masturbation, premarital sex, promiscuity, and nocturnal emissions. Several past studies have emphasized that CBS leads to “anxiety for loss of semen” is not only prevalent in the Indian subcontinent but also a global phenomenon.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20]It is important to note that DS manifestation and the psychosexual features are based on the impact of culture, demographic profiles, and the socioeconomic status of the patients.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] According to Leff,[21] culture depends upon norms, values, and myths, based on a specific area, and is also shared by the indigenous individuals of that area.

Tiwari et al.[22] mentioned in their study that “culture is closely associated with mental disorders through social and psychological activities.” With this background, the paper attempts to highlight the multidimensional construct of DS for a better clinical understanding in routine practice. Dhat Syndrome. A Separate Entity or a “Cultural Variant” of Depression Even though DS has been studied for years now, a consensus on the definition is yet to be achieved. It has mostly been conceptualized as a multidimensional psychosomatic entity consisting of anxiety, depressive, somatic, and sexual phenomenology.

Most importantly, abnormal and erroneous attributions are considered to be responsible for the genesis of DS. The most important debate is, however, related to the nosological status of DS. Although considered to a CBS unique to India, it has also been increasingly reported in China, Europe, Japan, Malaysia, Russia, and America.[11] The consistency and validity of its diagnosis have been consistently debated, and one of the most vital questions that emerged was. Can there be another way to conceptualize DS?.

There is no single answer to that question. Apart from an independent entity, the diagnostic validity of which has been limited in longitudinal studies,[23] it has also been a cultural variant of depressive and somatization disorders. Mumford[11] in his study of Asian patients with DS found a significant association with depressed mood, anxiety, and fatigue. Around the same time, another study by Chadha[24] reported comorbidities in DS at a rate of 50%, 32%, and 18% related to depression, somatoform disorders, and anxiety, respectively.

Depression continued to be reported as the most common association of DS in many studies.[25],[26] This “cause-effect” dilemma can never be fully resolved. Whether “loss of semen” and the cultural attributions to it leads to the affective symptoms or whether low mood and neuroticism can lead to DS in appropriate cultural context are two sides of the argument. However, the cognitive biases resulting in the attributional errors of DS and the subsequently maintained attitudes with relation to sexuality can be explained by the depressive cognitions and concepts of learned helplessness. Balhara[27] has argued that since DS is not really culture specific as thought of earlier, it should not be solely categorized as a functional somatic syndrome, as that can have detrimental effects on its understanding and management.

He also mentions that the underlying “emotional distress and cultural contexts” are not unique to DS but can be related to any psychiatric syndrome for that matter. On the contrary, other researchers have warned that subsuming DS and other CBS under the broader rubric of “mood disorders” can lead to neglect and reductionism in disorder like DS that can have unique cultural connotations.[28] Over the years, there have been multiple propositions to relook and relabel CBS like DS. Considering it as a variant of depression or somatization can make it a “cultural phenotype” of these disorders in certain regions, thus making it easier for the classificatory systems. This dichotomous debate seems never-ending, but clinically, it is always better to err on over-diagnosing and over-treating depression and anxiety in DS, which can improve the well-being of the distressed patients.

Why Discuss Dhat Syndrome. Implications in Clinical Practice DS might occur independently or associated with multiple comorbidities. It has been a widely recognized clinical condition in various parts of the world, though considered specific to the Indian subcontinent. The presentation can often be polymorphic with symptom clusters of affective, somatic, behavioral, and cognitive manifestations.[29] Being common in rural areas, the first contacts of the patients are frequently traditional faith healers and less often, the general practitioners.

A psychiatric referral occurs much later, if at all. This leads to underdetection and faulty treatments, which can strengthen the already existing misattributions and misinformation responsible for maintaining the disorder. Furthermore, depression and sexual dysfunction can be the important comorbidities that if untreated, lead to significant psychosocial dysfunction and impaired quality of life.[30] Besides many patients of DS believe that their symptoms are due to failure of interpersonal relationships, s, and heredity, which might cause early death and infertility. This contributes to the vicious cycle of fear and panic.[31] Doctor shopping is another challenge and failure to detect and address the concern of DS might lead to dropping out from the care.[15] Rao[17] in their epidemiological study reported 12.5% prevalence in the general population, with 20.5% and 50% suffering from comorbid depression and sexual disorders.

The authors stressed upon the importance of early detection of DS for the psychosexual and social well-being. Most importantly, the multidimensional presentation of DS can at certain times be a facade overshadowing underlying neurotic disorders (anxiety, depression, somatoform, hypochondriasis, and phobias), obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders and body dysmorphic disorders, delusional disorders, sexual disorders (premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction) and infectious disorders (urinary tract s, sexually transmitted diseases), and even stress-related manifestations in otherwise healthy individuals.[4],[14],[15] This significant overlap of symptomatology, increased prevalence, and marked comorbidity make it all the more important for physicians to make sense out of the construct of DS. That can facilitate prompt detection and management of DS in routine clinical practice.In an earlier review study, it was observed that few studies are undertaken to update the research works from published articles as an updated review, systemic review, world literature review, etc., on DS and its management approach.[29],[32],[33],[34],[35] The present paper attempts to compile the evidence till date on DS related to its nosology, critique, manifestations, and management plan. The various empirical studies on DS all over the world will be briefly discussed along with the implications and importance of the syndrome.

The Construct of Dhat Syndrome. Summary of Current Evidence DS is a well-known CBS, which is defined as undue concern about the weakening effects after the passage of semen in urine or through nocturnal emission that has been stated by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10).[36] It is also known as “semen loss syndrome” by Shakya,[20] which is prevalent mainly in the Indian subcontinent[37] and has also been reported in the South-Eastern and western population.[15],[16],[20],[32],[38],[39],[40],[41] Individuals with “semen loss anxiety” suffer from a myriad of psychosexual symptoms, which have been attributed to “loss of vital essence through semen” (common in South Asia).[7],[15],[16],[17],[32],[37],[41],[42],[43] The various studies related to attributes of DS and their findings are summarized further.Prakash et al.[5] studied 100 DS patients through 139 symptoms of the Associated Symptoms Scale. They studied sociodemographic profile, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Postgraduate Institute Neuroticism Scale. The study found a wide range of physical, anxiety, depression, sexual, and cognitive symptoms.

Most commonly associated symptoms were found as per score ≥1. This study reported several parameters such as the “sense of being unhealthy” (99%), worry (99%), feeling “no improvement despite treatment” (97%), tension (97%), tiredness (95%), fatigue (95%), weakness (95%), and anxiety (95%). The common sexual disorders were observed as loss of masculinity (83%), erectile dysfunction (54%), and premature ejaculation (53%). Majority of patients had faced mild or moderate level of symptoms in which 47% of the patients reported severe weakness.

Overall distress and dysfunction were observed as 64% and 81% in the studied subjects, respectively.A study in Taiwan involved 87 participants from a Urology clinic. Most of them have sexual neurosis (Shen-K'uei syndrome).[7] More than one-third of the patients belonged to lower social class and symptoms of depression, somatization, anxiety, masturbation, and nocturnal emissions. Other bodily complaints as reported were sleep disturbances, fatigue, dizziness, backache, and weakness. Nearly 80% of them considered that all of their problems were due to masturbatory practices.De Silva and Dissanayake[8] investigated several manifestations on semen loss syndrome in the psychiatric clinic of Colombo General Hospital, Sri Lanka.

Beliefs regarding effects of semen loss and help-seeking sought for DS were explored. 38 patients were studied after psychiatrically ill individuals and those with organic disorders were excluded. Duration of semen loss varied from 1 to 20 years. Every participant reported excessive loss of semen and was preoccupied with it.

The common forms of semen loss were through nocturnal emission, masturbation, urinary loss, and through sexual activities. Most of them reported multiple modes of semen loss. Masturbatory frequency and that of nocturnal emissions varied significantly. More than half of the patients reported all types of complaints (psychological, sexual, somatic, and genital).In the study by Chadda and Ahuja,[9] 52 psychiatric patients (mostly adolescents and young adults) complained of passing “Dhat” in urine.

They were assessed for a period of 6 months. More than 80% of them complained of body weakness, aches, and pains. More than 50% of the patients suffered from depression and anxiety. All the participants felt that their symptoms were due to loss of “dhat” in urine, attributed to excessive masturbation, extramarital and premarital sex.

Half of those who faced sexual dysfunctions attributed them to semen loss.Mumford[11] proposed a controversial explanation of DS arguing that it might be a part of other psychiatric disorders, like depression. A total of 1000 literate patients were recruited from a medical outdoor in a public sector hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. About 600 educated patients were included as per Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI). Men with DS reported greater symptoms on BSI than those without DS.

60 psychiatric patients were also recruited from the same hospital and diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R. Among them, 33% of the patients qualified for “Dhat” items on BSI. The symptoms persisted for more than 15 days. It was observed that symptoms of DS highly correlated with BSI items, namely erectile dysfunction, burning sensation during urination, fatigue, energy loss, and weakness.

This comparative study indicated that patients with DS suffered more from depressive disorders than without DS and the age group affected by DS was mostly the young.Grover et al.[15] conducted a study on 780 male patients aged >16 years in five centers (Chandigarh, Jaipur, Faridkot, Mewat, and New Delhi) of Northern India, 4 centers (2 from Kolkata, 1 each in Kalyani and Bhubaneswar) of Eastern India, 2 centers (Agra and Lucknow) of Central India, 2 centers (Ahmedabad and Wardha) of Western India, and 2 centers of Southern India (both located at Mysore) spread across the country by using DS questionnaire. Nearly one-third of the patients were passing “Dhat” multiple times a week. Among them, nearly 60% passed almost a spoonful of “Dhat” each time during a loss. This work on sexual disorders reported that the passage of “Dhat” was mostly attributed to masturbation (55.1%), dreams on sex (47.3%), sexual desire (42.8%), and high energy foods consumption (36.7%).

Mostly, the participants experienced passage of Dhat as “night falls” (60.1%) and “while passing stools” (59.5%). About 75.6% showed weakness in sexual ability as a common consequence of the “loss of Dhat.” The associated symptoms were depression, hopelessness, feeling low, decreased energy levels, weakness, and lack of pleasure. Erectile problems and premature ejaculation were also present.Rao[17] in his first epidemiological study done in Karnataka, India, showed the prevalence rate of DS in general male population as 12.5%. It was found that 57.5% were suffering either from comorbid depression or anxiety disorders.

The prevalence of psychiatric and sexual disorders was about three times higher with DS compared to non-DS subjects. One-third of the cases (32.8%) had no comorbidity in hospital (urban). One-fifth (20.5%) and 50% subjects (51.3%) had comorbid depressive disorders and sexual dysfunction. The psychosexual symptoms were found among 113 patients who had DS.

The most common psychological symptoms reported by the subjects with DS were low self-esteem (100%), loss of interest in any activity (95.60%), feeling of guilt (92.00%), and decreased social interaction (90.30%). In case of sexual disorders, beliefs were held commonly about testes becoming smaller (92.00%), thinness of semen (86.70%), decreased sexual capabilities (83.20%), and tilting of penis (70.80%).Shakya[20] studied a clinicodemographic profile of DS patients in psychiatry outpatient clinic of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

A total of 50 subjects were included in this study, and the psychiatric diagnoses as well as comorbidities were investigated as per the ICD-10 criteria. Among the subjects, most of the cases had symptoms of depression and anxiety, and all the subjects were worried about semen loss. Somehow these subjects had heard or read that semen loss or masturbation is unhealthy practice. The view of participants was that semen is very “precious,” needs preservation, and masturbation is a malpractice.

Beside DS, two-thirds of the subjects had comorbid depression.In another Indian study, Chadda et al.[24] compared patients with DS with those affected with neurotic/depressive disorders. Among 100 patients, 50%, 32%, and 18% reported depression, somatic problems, and anxiety, respectively. The authors argued that cases of DS have similar symptom dimensions as mood and anxiety disorders.Dhikav et al.[31] examined prevalence and management depression comorbid with DS. DSM-IV and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used for assessments.

About 66% of the patients met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of depression. They concluded that depression was a frequent comorbidity in DS patients.In a study by Perme et al.[37] from South India that included 32 DS patients, the control group consisted of 33 people from the same clinic without DS, depression, and anxiety. The researchers followed the guidelines of Bhatia and Malik's for the assessment of primary complaints of semen loss through “nocturnal emissions, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and passing of semen before and after urine.” The assessment was done based on several indices, namely “Somatization Screening Index, Illness Behavior Questionnaire, Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Whitley Index, and Revised Chalder Fatigue Scale.” Several complaints such as somatic complaints, hypochondriacal beliefs, and fatigue were observed to be significantly higher among patients with DS compared to the control group.A study conducted in South Hall (an industrial area in the borough of Middlesex, London) included Indian and Pakistani immigrants. Young men living separately from their wives reported promiscuity, some being infected with gonorrhea and syphilis.

Like other studies, nocturnal emission, weakness, and impotency were the other reported complaints. Semen was considered to be responsible for strength and vigor by most patients. Compared to the sexual problems of Indians, the British residents complained of pelvic issues and backache.In another work, Bhatia et al.[42] undertook a study on culture-bound syndromes and reported that 76.7% of the sample had DS followed by possession syndrome and Koro (a genital-related anxiety among males in South-East Asia). Priyadarshi and Verma[43] performed a study in Urology Department of S M S Hospital, Jaipur, India.

They conducted the study among 110 male patients who complained of DS and majority of them were living alone (54.5%) or in nuclear family (30%) as compared to joint family. Furthermore, 60% of them reported of never having experienced sex.Nakra et al.[44] investigated incidence and clinical features of 150 consecutive patients who presented with potency complaints in their clinic. Clinical assessments were done apart from detailed sexual history. The patients were 15–50 years of age, educated up to mid-school and mostly from a rural background.

Most of them were married and reported premarital sexual practices, while nearly 67% of them practiced masturbation from early age. There was significant guilt associated with nocturnal emissions and masturbation. Nearly 27% of the cases reported DS-like symptoms attributing their health problems to semen loss.Behere and Nataraj[45] reported that majority of the patients with DS presented with comorbidities of physical weakness, anxiety, headache, sad mood, loss of appetite, impotence, and premature ejaculation. The authors stated that DS in India is a symptom complex commonly found in younger age groups (16–23 years).

The study subjects presented with complaints of whitish discharge in urine and believed that the loss of semen through masturbation was the reason for DS and weakness.Singh et al.[46] studied 50 cases with DS and sexual problems (premature ejaculation and impotence) from Punjab, India, after exclusion of those who were psychiatrically ill. It was assumed in the study that semen loss is considered synonymous to “loss of something precious”, hence its loss would be associated with low mood and grief. Impotency (24%), premature ejaculation (14%), and “Dhat” in urine (40%) were the common complaints observed. Patients reported variety of symptoms including anxiety, depression, appetite loss, sleep problems, bodily pains, and headache.

More than half of the patients were independently diagnosed with depression, and hence, the authors argued that DS may be a manifestation of depressive disorders.Bhatia and Malik[47] reported that the most common complaints associated with DS were physical weakness, fatigue and palpitation, insomnia, sad mood, headache, guilt feeling and suicidal ideation, impotence, and premature ejaculation. Psychiatric disorders were found in 69% of the patients, out of which the most common was depression followed by anxiety, psychosis, and phobia. About 15% of the patients were found to have premature ejaculation and 8% had impotence.Bhatia et al.[48] examined several biological variables of DS after enrolment of 40 patients in a psychosexual clinic in Delhi. Patients had a history of impotence, premature ejaculation, and loss of semen (after exclusion of substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders).

Twenty years was the mean age of onset and semen loss was mainly through masturbation and sexual intercourse. 67.5% and 75% of them reported sexual disorders and psychiatric comorbidity while 25%, 12.5%, and 37.5% were recorded to suffer from ejaculatory impotence, premature ejaculation, and depression (with anxiety), respectively.Bhatia[49] conducted a study on CBS among 60 patients attending psychiatric outdoor in a teaching hospital. The study revealed that among all patients with CBSs, DS was the most common (76.7%) followed by possession syndrome (13.3%) and Koro (5%). Hypochondriasis, sexually transmitted diseases, and depression were the associated comorbidities.

Morrone et al.[50] studied 18 male patients with DS in the Dermatology department who were from Bangladesh and India. The symptoms observed were mainly fatigue and nonspecific somatic symptoms. DS patients manifested several symptoms in psychosocial, religious, somatic, and other domains. The reasons provided by the patients for semen loss were urinary loss, nocturnal emission, and masturbation.

Dhat Syndrome. The Epidemiology The typical demographic profile of a DS patient has been reported to be a less educated, young male from lower socioeconomic status and usually from rural areas. In the earlier Indian studies by Carstairs,[51],[52],[53] it was observed that majority of the cases (52%–66.7%) were from rural areas, belonged to “conservative families and posed rigid views about sex” (69%-73%). De Silva and Dissanayake[8] in their study on semen loss syndrome reported the average age of onset of DS to be 25 years with most of them from lower-middle socioeconomic class.

Chadda and Ahuja[9] studied young psychiatric patients who complained of semen loss. They were mainly manual laborers, farmers, and clerks from low socioeconomic status. More than half were married and mostly uneducated. Khan[13] studied DS patients in Pakistan and reported that majority of the patients visited Hakims (50%) and Homeopaths (24%) for treatment.

The age range was wide between 12 and 65 years with an average age of 24 years. Among those studied, majority were unmarried (75%), literacy was up to matriculation and they belonged to lower socioeconomic class. Grover et al.[15] in their study of 780 male subjects showed the average age of onset to be 28.14 years and the age ranged between 21 and 30 years (55.3%). The subjects were single or unmarried (51.0%) and married (46.7%).

About 23.5% of the subjects had graduated and most were unemployed (73.5%). Majority of subjects were lower-middle class (34%) and had lower incomes. Rao[17] studied 907 subjects, in which majority were from 18 to 30 years (44.5%). About 45.80% of the study subjects were illiterates and very few had completed postgraduation.

The subjects were both married and single. Majority of the subjects were residing in nuclear family (61.30%) and only 0.30% subjects were residing alone. Most of the patients did not have comorbid addictive disorders. The subjects were mainly engaged in agriculture (43.40%).

Majority of the subjects were from lower middle and upper lower socioeconomic class.Shakya[20] had studied the sociodemographic profile of 50 patients with DS. The average age of the studied patients was 25.4 years. The age ranges in decreasing order of frequency were 16–20 years (34%) followed by 21–25 years (28%), greater than 30 years (26%), 26–30 years (10%), and 11–15 years (2%). Further, the subjects were mostly students (50%) and rest were in service (26%), farmers (14%), laborers (6%), and business (4%), respectively.

Dhikav et al.[31] conducted a study on 30 patients who had attended the Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of frequently passing semen in urine. In the studied patients, the age ranged between 20 and 40 years with an average age of 29 years and average age of onset of 19 years. The average duration of illness was that of 11 months. Most of the studied patients were unmarried (64.2%) and educated till middle or high school (70%).

Priyadarshi and Verma[43] performed a study in 110 male patients with DS. The average age of the patients was 23.53 years and it ranged between 15 and 68 years. The most affected age group of patients was of 18–25 years, which comprised about 60% of patients. On the other hand, about 25% ranged between 25 and 35 years, 10% were lesser than 18 years of age, and 5.5% patients were aged >35 years.

Higher percentage of the patients were unmarried (70%). Interestingly, high prevalence of DS was found in educated patients and about 50% of patients were graduate or above but most of the patients were either unemployed or student (49.1%). About 55% and 24.5% patients showed monthly family income of <10,000 and 5000 Indian Rupees (INR), respectively. Two-third patients belonged to rural areas of residence.

Behere and Nataraj[45] found majority of the patients with DS (68%) to be between 16 and 25 years age. About 52% patients were married while 48% were unmarried and from lower socioeconomic strata. The duration of DS symptoms varied widely. Singh[46] studied patients those who reported with DS, impotence, and premature ejaculation and reported the average age of the affected to be 21.8 years with a younger age of onset.

Only a few patients received higher education. Bhatia and Malik[47] as mentioned earlier reported that age at the time of onset of DS ranged from 16 to 24 years. More than half of them were single. It was observed that most patients had some territorial education (91.67%) but few (8.33%) had postgraduate education or professional training.

Finally, Bhatia et al.[48] studied cases of sexual dysfunctions and reported an average age of 21.6 years among the affected, majority being unmarried (80%). Most of those who had comorbid DS symptoms received minimal formal education. Management. A Multimodal Approach As mentioned before, individuals affected with DS often seek initial treatment with traditional healers, practitioners of alternative medicine, and local quacks.

As a consequence, varied treatment strategies have been popularized. Dietary supplements, protein and iron-rich diet, Vitamin B and C-complexes, antibiotics, multivitamin injections, herbal “supplements,” etc., have all been used in the treatment though scientific evidence related to them is sparse.[33] Frequent change of doctors, irregular compliance to treatment, and high dropout from health care are the major challenges, as the attributional beliefs toward DS persist in the majority even after repeated reassurance.[54] A multidisciplinary approach (involving psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers) is recommended and close liaison with the general physicians, the Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy practitioners, dermatologists, venereologists, and neurologists often help. The role of faith healers and local counselors is vital, and it is important to integrate them into the care of DS patients, rather than side-tracking them from the system. Community awareness needs to be increased especially in primary health care for early detection and appropriate referrals.

Follow-up data show two-thirds of patients affected with DS recovering with psychoeducation and low-dose sedatives.[45] Bhatia[49] studied 60 cases of DS and reported better response to anti-anxiety and antidepressant medications compared to psychotherapy alone. Classically, the correction of attributional biases through empathy, reflective, and nonjudgmental approaches has been proposed.[38] Over the years, sex education, psychotherapy, psychoeducation, relaxation techniques, and medications have been advocated in the management of DS.[9],[55] In psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral and brief solution-focused approaches are useful to target the dysfunctional assumptions and beliefs in DS. The role of sex education is vital involving the basic understanding of sexual anatomy and physiology of sexuality. This needs to be tailored to the local terminology and beliefs.

Biofeedback has also been proposed as a treatment modality.[4] Individual stress factors that might have precipitated DS need to be addressed. A detailed outline of assessment, evaluation, and management of DS is beyond the scope of this article and has already been reported in the IPS Clinical Practice Guidelines.[56] The readers are referred to these important guidelines for a comprehensive read on management. Probably, the most important factor is to understand and resolve the sociocultural contexts in the genesis of DS in each individual. Adequate debunking of the myths related to sexuality and culturally appropriate sexual education is vital both for the prevention and treatment of DS.[56] Adequate treatment of comorbidities such as depression and anxiety often helps in reduction of symptoms, more so when the DS is considered to be a manifestation of the same.

Future of Dhat Syndrome. The Way Forward Classifications in psychiatry have always been fraught with debates and discussion such as categorical versus dimensional, biological versus evolutionary. CBS like DS forms a major area of this nosological controversy. Longitudinal stability of a diagnosis is considered to be an important part of its independent categorization.

Sameer et al.[23] followed up DS patients for 6.0 ± 3.5 years and concluded that the “pure” variety of DS is not a stable diagnostic entity. The authors rather proposed DS as a variant of somatoform disorder, with cultural explanations. The right “place” for DS in classification systems has mostly been debated and theoretically fluctuant.[14] Sridhar et al.[57] mentioned the importance of reclassifying DS from a clinically, phenomenologically, psycho-pathologically, and diagnostically valid standpoint. Although both ICD and DSM have been culturally sensitive to classification, their approach to DS has been different.

While ICD-10 considers DS under “other nonpsychotic mental disorders” (F48), DSM-V mentions it only in appendix section as “cultural concepts of distress” not assigning the condition any particular number.[12],[58] Fundamental questions have actually been raised about its separate existence altogether,[35] which further puts its diagnostic position in doubt. As discussed in the earlier sections, an alternate hypothesization of DS is a cultural variant of depression, rather than a “true syndrome.”[27] Over decades, various schools of thought have considered DS either to be a global phenomenon or a cultural “idiom” of distress in specific geographical regions or a manifestation of other primary psychiatric disorders.[59] Qualitative studies in doctors have led to marked discordance in their opinion about the validity and classificatory area of DS.[60] The upcoming ICD-11 targets to pay more importance to cultural contexts for a valid and reliable classification. However, separating the phenomenological boundaries of diseases might lead to subsetting the cultural and contextual variants in broader rubrics.[61],[62] In that way, ICD-11 might propose alternate models for distinction of CBS like DS at nosological levels.[62] It is evident that various factors include socioeconomics, acceptability, and sustainability influence global classificatory systems, and this might influence the “niche” of DS in the near future. It will be interesting to see whether it retains its diagnostic independence or gets subsumed under the broader “narrative” of depression.

In any case, uniformity of diagnosing this culturally relevant yet distressing and highly prevalent condition will remain a major area related to psychiatric research and treatment. Conclusion DS is a multidimensional psychiatric “construct” which is equally interesting and controversial. Historically relevant and symptomatically mysterious, this disorder provides unique insights into cultural contexts of human behavior and the role of misattributions, beliefs, and misinformation in sexuality. Beyond the traditional debate about its “separate” existence, the high prevalence of DS, associated comorbidities, and resultant dysfunction make it relevant for emotional and psychosexual health.

It is also treatable, and hence, the detection, understanding, and awareness become vital to its management. This oration attempts a “bird's eye” view of this CBS taking into account a holistic perspective of the available evidence so far. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic and epidemiological attributes, management, and nosological controversies are highlighted to provide a comprehensive account of DS and its relevance to mental health. More systematic and mixed methods research are warranted to unravel the enigma of this controversial yet distressing psychiatric disorder.AcknowledgmentI sincerely thank Dr.

Debanjan Banerjee (Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore) for his constant selfless support, rich academic discourse, and continued collaboration that helped me condense years of research and ideas into this paper.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest. References 1.2.3.Srinivasa Murthy R, Wig NN. A man ahead of his time. In.

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Phenomenology and beliefs of patients with Dhat syndrome. A nationwide multicentric study. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2016;62:57-66. 16.MacFarland AS, Al-Maashani M, Al Busaidi Q, Al-Naamani A, El-Bouri M, Al-Adawi S.

Culture-specific pathogenicity of Dhat (semen loss) Syndrome in an Arab/Islamic Society, Oman. Oman Med J 2017;32:251-5. 17.Rao TS. Comprehensive Study of Prevalence Rates, Symptom Profile, Comorbidity and Management of Dhat Syndrome in Rural and Urban Communities.

PhD Thesis. Department of Psychiatry, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara Medical College, JSS University, Shivarathreeshwara Nagar Mysore, Karnataka, India. 2017. 18.Kar SK.

Treatment - emergent Dhat syndrome in a young male with obsessive-compulsive disorder. An alarm for medication nonadherence. Acta Med Int 2019;6:44-45. [Full text] 19.Kuchhal AK, Kumar S, Pardal PK, Aggarwal G.

Effect of Dhat syndrome on body and mind. Int J Contemp Med Res 2019;6:H7-10. 20.Shakya DR. Dhat syndrome.

Study of clinical presentations in a teaching institute of eastern Nepal. J Psychosexual Health 2019;1:143-8. 21.Leff JP. Culture and the differentiation of emotional states.

Br J Psychiatry 1973;123:299-306. 22.Tiwari SC, Katiyar M, Sethi BB. Culture and mental disorders. An overview.

J Soc Psychiatry 1986;2:403-25. 23.Sameer M, Menon V, Chandrasekaran R. Is 'Pure' Dhat syndrome a stable diagnostic entity?. A naturalistic long term follow up study from a tertiary care centre.

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A study of illness behaviour characteristics. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1995;91:136-9. 25.Bhatia MS, Bohra N, Malik SC. 'Dhat' syndrome – A useful clinical entity.

Indian J Dermatol 1989;34:32-41. 26.Dewaraja R, Sasaki Y. Semen-loss syndrome. A comparison between Sri Lanka and Japan.

American J Psychotherapy 1991;45:14-20. 27.Balhara YP. Culture-bound syndrome. Has it found its right niche?.

Indian J Psychol Med 2011;33:210-5. [PUBMED] [Full text] 28.Prakash, S, Mandal P. Is Dhat syndrome indeed a culturally determined form of depression?. Indian J Psychol Med 2015;37:107-9.

29.Prakash O, Kar SK. Dhat syndrome. A review and update. J Psychosexual Health 2019;1:241-5.

30.Grover S, Avasthi A, Gupta S, Dan A, Neogi R, Behere PB, et al. Comorbidity in patients with Dhat syndrome. A nationwide multicentric study. J Sex Med 2015;12:1398-401.

31.Dhikav V, Aggarwal N, Gupta S, Jadhavi R, Singh K. Depression in Dhat syndrome. J Sex Med 2008;5:841-4. 32.Paris A.

Dhat syndrome. A review. Transcult Psychiatry Rev 1992;29:109-18. 33.Deb KS, Balhara YP.

Dhat syndrome. A review of the world literature. Indian J Psychol Med 2013;35:326-31. [PUBMED] [Full text] 34.Udina M, Foulon H, Valdés M, Bhattacharyya S, Martín-Santos R.

Dhat syndrome. A systematic review. Psychosomatics 2013;54:212-8. 35.Kar SK, Sarkar S.

Dhat syndrome. Evolution of concept, current understanding, and need of an integrated approach. J Hum Reprod Sci 2015;8:130-4. [PUBMED] [Full text] 36.World Health Organisation.

The ICD-10, Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Geneva. World Health Organisation.

1992. 37.Perme B, Ranjith G, Mohan R, Chandrasekaran R. Dhat (semen loss) syndrome. A functional somatic syndrome of the Indian subcontinent?.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2005;27:215-7. 38.Wig NN. Problem of mental health in India. J Clin Soc Psychiatry 1960;17:48-53.

39.Clyne MB. Indian patients. Practitioner 1964;193:195-9. 40.Yap PM.

The culture bound reactive syndrome. In. Caudil W, Lin T, editors. Mental Health Research in Asia and the Pacific.

Honolulu. East West Center Press. 1969. 41.Rao TS, Rao VS, Arif M, Rajendra PN, Murthy KA, Gangadhar TK, et al.

Problems in medical practice. A study on its prevalence in an outpatient setting. Indian J Psychiatry 1997:Suppl 39:53. 42.Bhatia MS, Thakkur KN, Chadda RK, Shome S.

Koro in Dhat syndrome. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 1992;8:74-5. 43.Priyadarshi S, Verma A. Dhat syndrome and its social impact.

Urol Androl Open J 2015;1:6-11. 44.Nakra BR, Wig NN, Verma VK. A study of male potency disorders. Indian J Psychiatry 1977;19:13-8.

[Full text] 45.Behere PB, Natraj GS. Dhat syndrome. The phenomenology of a culture bound sex neurosis of the orient. Indian J Psychiatry 1984;26:76-8.

[PUBMED] [Full text] 46.Singh G. Dhat syndrome revisited. Indian J Psychiatry 1985;27:119-22. [PUBMED] [Full text] 47.Bhatia MS, Malik SC.

Dhat syndrome – A useful diagnostic entity in Indian culture. Br J Psychiatry 1991;159:691-5. 48.Bhatia MS, Choudhry S, Shome S. Dhat syndrome - Is it a syndrome of Dhat only?.

J Ment Health Hum Behav1997;2:17-22. 49.Bhatia MS. An analysis of 60 cases of culture bound syndromes. Indian J Med Sci 1999;53:149-52.

[PUBMED] [Full text] 50.Morrone A, Nosotti L, Tumiati Mc, Cianconi P, Casadei F, Franco G. Dhat Syndrome. An Analysis of 18 Cases. Paper Presented in 11th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology &.

51.Carstairs GM. Hinjra and jiryan. Two derivatives of Hindu attitudes to sexuality. Br J Med Psychol 1956;29:128-38.

52.Carstairs GM. The Twice Born. Bloomington. Indiana University Press.

1961. 53.Carstairs GM. Psychiatric problems of developing countries. Based on the Morison lecture delivered at the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, on 25 May 1972.

Br J Psychiatry 1973;123:271-7. 54.Sathyanarayana Rao TS. Some thoughts on sexualities and research in India. Indian J Psychiatry 2004;46:3-4.

[PUBMED] [Full text] 55.Prakash O, Rao TS. Sexuality research in India. An update. Indian J Psychiatry 2010;52:S260-3.

56.Avasthi A, Grover S, Rao TS. Clinical practice guidelines for management of sexual dysfunction. Indian J Psychiatry 2017;59 Suppl 1:S91-115. 57.Kavanoor Sridhar V, Subramanian K, Menon V.

Current nosology of Dhat syndrome and state of evidence. Indian J Health Sex Cult 2018;4:8-14. 58.APA (American Psychological Association). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

DSM-5. Washington. DC. American Psychological Association.

2013. 59.Yasir Arafat SM. Dhat syndrome. Culture bound, separate entity, or removed.

J Behav Health 2017;6:147-50. 60.Prakash S, Sharan P, Sood M. A qualitative study on psychopathology of dhat syndrome in men. Implications for classification of disorders.

Asian J Psychiatr 2018;35:79-88. 61.Lewis-Fernández R, Aggarwal NK. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis. Adv Psychosom Med 2013;33:15-30.

62.Sharan P, Keeley J. Cultural perspectives related to international classification of diseases-11. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2018;34 Suppl S1:1-4. Correspondence Address:T S Sathyanarayana RaoDepartment of Psychiatry, JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore - 570 004, Karnataka IndiaSource of Support.

None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_791_20.

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Almost half of the hospitals in the survey said staffing problems had prevented them from accepting new patients in the past 60 days. One in four hospitals said that a lack of nurses had forced cialis 20mg daily them to suspend certain services, including, according to Michael Topchik, national leader of the Chartis Center for Rural Health. Newborn delivery, chemotherapy, and colonoscopies. Another one in five said they were considering it.

€œThe cialis has maxed out these hospitals,” Topchik told me, “which cialis 20mg daily means they are unable to provide services vital to the community.”Hospitals have gotten a lot better at handling erectile dysfunction treatment surges. They have more weapons at their disposal — antiviral drugs and monoclonal antibodies — and better understand which techniques are effective at preventing the disease from getting worse. Roberta Schwartz, chief innovation officer at Houston Methodist Hospital, told me while her hospital started shutting down services immediately during the first cialis wave, they were able to absorb more than 700 erectile dysfunction treatment patients during the most recent summer wave without compromising their other operations.But as flu season looms and cold weather threatens another erectile dysfunction treatment surge, two trends that would fill up hospital beds again, the staffing crisis isn’t easing.According to a September study commissioned by the American Hospital Association, the average cost of labor expenses for each discharged patient has grown by 14 percent in 2021 — even as the number of full-time employees has dropped by 4 percent.Hospitals, both rural and urban, are feeling the squeeze. Their workforces are burned cialis 20mg daily out.

Some staff members are still reluctant to take the erectile dysfunction treatment, even as some facilities start to impose mandates. And they are facing competition from traveling nursing companies that are offering better and better benefits to lure nurses away from permanent full-time jobs.With some services being shut down, patients in underserved areas may have to travel hours to larger facilities — hospitals that are experiencing their own staffing challenges and often run at near 100 percent capacity already.“There are nursing shortages nationwide, which means many hospitals can’t staff all their beds,” Karen Joynt Maddox, assistant professor of medicine at Washington University in St. Louis, told me cialis 20mg daily. €œThe big referral centers ...

Chronically operate at or above capacity, so any bumps in volume put additional strain on the system.” Burnout among the health care workforce remains acute 20 months into the cialis. About half of medical workers cialis 20mg daily reported feeling burnout during 2020, according to a study from the American Medical Association. Almost half of ICU nurses said in another survey earlier this year that they were considering leaving the profession.Nine in 10 rural hospital leaders said their concerns about staff burnout had increased over the course of 2021. In other words, the staffing crisis is getting worse, not better.“The workforce is burnt out.

The workforce cialis 20mg daily is leaving,” said Beth Feldpush, senior vice president at America’s Essential Hospitals. €œThe human capacity is more of an issue than physical capacity.”The average age of a nurse in the United States is 50. Some of those workers decided to retire early rather than push on through the most difficult working conditions of their career.”This is mental anguish,” Schwartz said. €œWe have an aging workforce cialis 20mg daily.

Some of them might have worked another year or two, but with a cialis, nope.”treatment hesitancy could end up making this difficult situation worse. Only about 25 percent of the rural hospitals surveyed by Chartis are instituting a treatment mandate (some of which have not yet taken effect), but, among those, about one in four expect a significant percentage of their staff — 5 percent or more — not to comply with the mandate. For some of them, that would mean an automatic termination and another job opening cialis 20mg daily that the hospital needs to fill.But that’s when the third problem squeezing hospitals complicates things. It’s getting harder to hire and retain nurses because many of them can earn a higher salary working as a traveling nurse, hired for a temporary period by a hospital facing a staffing crunch — and willing to pay the rising prices commanded by those workers.As NBC News reported last month, permanent nurses at rural hospitals make on average about $1,200 per week.

These days, some travel nursing firms are offering their workers more than $5,000 per week. €œThis has been a huge shift for many folks,” Mary Beth Kingston, chief nursing officer at a health system cialis 20mg daily serving Illinois and Wisconsin, said in a panel discussion on the staffing crisis hosted by the AHA. €œPeople are leaving their place of employment because this is a chance to increase their salary in a major way.”Traveling nurses have played an important role in the cialis. Hospital leaders say that, in essence, they needed to increase their workforce by 20 percent to handle erectile dysfunction treatment surges, and the travel firms helped to supply that excess staffing.

In the Chartis survey, more than half of the hospitals said their use of travel nurses had increased “significantly” during the cialis, even though most of them used those workers only “rarely” prior to the current crisis.But that increase in demand has allowed travel nursing firms to offer those higher salaries and more generous benefits, which cialis 20mg daily can lure nurses away from permanent employment. Hospital leaders describe a situation in which full-time nurses and traveling nurses are sitting side by side at a nursing station, with the latter telling the former how much money they are making in this new role.In the Chartis survey of rural health systems, hospital leaders named “more financially lucrative opportunities” as the No. 1 reason for their nurses leaving, followed by cialis burnout and retirement.There isn’t an easy solution cialis 20mg daily to the nursing crisis. The worrisome trends actually predate the cialis.

In 2018, a study in the American Journal of Medical Quality projected more nursing shortages to appear from 2016 to 2030, concentrated particularly in the South and the West.The aging workforce is part of the problem, and not enough students are enrolling in nursing school to offset those losses, according to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing.There are some provisions in Democrats’ pending Build Back Better legislation to support the health care workforce by forgiving loans for medical education, incentivizing more doctors and nurses to practice in underserved areas, and providing more funding to hospitals that run graduate education programs.But hospitals don’t believe it will be enough. They are cialis 20mg daily preparing for a world in which erectile dysfunction treatment is endemic, a regular part of the medical calendar — and their staffs are still overstretched.“They are concerned with the overlap of a winter surge and more flu circulating,” Feldpush said. €œThey do not expect to see any alleviation in staffing shortages or costs.” Will you support Vox’s explanatory journalism?. Millions rely on Vox’s journalism to understand the erectile dysfunction crisis.

We believe it cialis 20mg daily pays off for all of us, as a society and a democracy, when our neighbors and fellow citizens can access clear, concise information on the cialis. But our distinctive explanatory journalism is expensive. Support from our readers helps us keep it free for everyone. If you cialis 20mg daily have already made a financial contribution to Vox, thank you.

If not, please consider making a contribution today from as little as $3.Editor’s Note. This interview first appeared in Path Finders, an email newsletter from the Daily Yonder. Each week, Path cialis 20mg daily Finders features a Q&A with a rural thinker, creator, or doer. Like what you see here?.

You can join the mailing list at the bottom of this article and receive more conversations like this in your inbox each week. Last week, the Daily Yonder published an article about the cialis 20mg daily costs of well-paid travel nursing positions on rural healthcare systems. From staffing shortages, to hospital closures, to aging rural populations, the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis has clearly exposed and exacerbated some long standing problems within the incentive structures of healthcare work. I spoke with Audrey Snyder, who is the Associate Dean for Experiential Learning at the University of North Carolina Greensboro’s School of Nursing, and former president of the national Rural Nurse Organization—two roles which share the explicit goal of problem-solving in rural healthcare.

Enjoy our conversation about cialis 20mg daily travel nursing, treatment mandates, and toxic positivity, below. Olivia Weeks, The Daily Yonder. What are the incentives for nurses to work at rural hospitals right now?. What’s the cialis 20mg daily staffing situation at rural hospitals generally?.

Audrey Snyder. There are not a lot of incentives for nurses working at rural hospitals right now. Hospitals are trying to find cialis 20mg daily small ways to express their gratitude to nurses. Nurses in general have a positive feeling when they know they are caring for their own community.

Working in a small community can come with its own challenges since word of a person being ill can travel fast and nurses must maintain confidentiality even when someone may ask about a patient when they see the nurse in the community. Staffing is globally short though and nurses are overworked and feeling the strain of the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis as it cialis 20mg daily wears on. We have seen hospitals decreases their open bed numbers related to a lack of staffing. With recent increased cases with the delta variant surge some rural facilities have had difficulty transferring patients to a higher level of care because those facilities are also strained.

In 2020 during the cialis there were 19 rural hospital closures and a few more have closed this cialis 20mg daily year. We worry about future closures and the impact this will have on access to care and the health of rural community. Rural residents will have to travel cialis 20mg daily further to access care. DY.

To what extent are rural nursing shortages due to discrete issues like treatment mandates and high-paying travel nursing positions, and to what extent are they the result of broader structural trends in rural life and economics?. Like this story? cialis 20mg daily. Sign up for our newsletter. AS.

In general there is a smaller population of people living in cialis 20mg daily rural areas and this means there are less people from rural communities going into healthcare professions, including nursing. We were in a nursing shortage prior to the cialis. The cialis just shed light on the challenge of rural facilities maintaining staff. Urban centers have been pulling nurses to higher paying cialis 20mg daily travel positions for a while.

With the cialis, this phenomenon has increased as urban areas who have had large erectile dysfunction treatment outbreaks are paying travel companies to staff their facilities. There are some rural areas with travel nurses also, but most rural hospitals cannot afford the high cost of travelers. When there are traveling nurses in any facility, nurses on the payroll may get upset when they find out the salary the traveling nurses are making, which is often higher cialis 20mg daily than the established facility nurse’s salary. Rural areas have lower erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination rates, and this may extend to healthcare providers as well.

With the federal mandate for health care professionals to be vaccinated for erectile dysfunction treatment hospitals may lose more nurses if the nurses refuse to be vaccinated. Many rural nurses’ families are embedded cialis 20mg daily in the rural community. Their family may farm for example. Taking a job at a distance could significantly impact home life and present challenges with being on the road daily.

For some younger nurses they may see cialis 20mg daily travel nursing as a means to see a distant part of the country and a way to pay off debt. DY. How do you attempt to encourage rural nursing at UNCG?. AS cialis 20mg daily.

Many of our nursing students come from rural areas. At UNCG we have clinical agreements for nursing students to train in many rural facilitates. One of our cialis 20mg daily community health rotations is in a rural elementary school focusing not just on school health but community health. Health disparities are amplified in rural communities, and this provides for teachable moments with nursing students.

We know that exposure to a rural environment while nursing students are in school can increase the likelihood that they will look at a rural community for work. We have collaborations with rural community colleges in the area to offer Registered Nurse to BSN programs cialis 20mg daily. Many nurses in rural areas train in Associate Degree programs locally at community colleges, but many hospitals want nurses who are trained at a bachelor’s level, especially if they are a Magnet hospital. The hospital may hire a nurse with an associate’s degree with an agreement that the nurse will obtain a bachelor’s degree within a certain time frame.

Attending a program close to their community decreases travel times for cialis 20mg daily these nurses. UNCG was awarded a four-year federal grant in July to help train nurse practitioners to work in rural and medically underserved communities. This grant is enhancing our doctorate of nursing practice program and providing support to 16 of our cialis 20mg daily Adult Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner students. We also have nurse anesthesia students in clinical rotations in rural hospitals.

Our hope is that exposure to rural communities, smaller rural hospitals and rural life may entice graduates to work in these areas. DY. What purpose is served by the Rural Nurse Organization and organizations like it?. AS.

The Rural Nurse Organization (RNO) serves as a voice for rural nurses, promotes awareness of rural health concerns, provides education on current topics for nurses and offers opportunities for collaboration on practice issues, research, leadership, and education. The RNO offer a conference every other year where nurses can come together to address all aspects of rural nursing. The Rural Nurse Organization is part of the Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations and in this position the organization advocates for local, state and national policies that improve public health, promoting equitable healthcare for all. Audrey Snyder is the Associate Dean for Experiential Learning at the University of North Carolina Greensboro’s School of Nursing.

(Photo courtesy of Snyder.) DY. All credit to my wonderful nurse friend Sunny for the term, but I’m wondering if you have thoughts on ‘toxic positivity,’ or the compulsion to maintain a positive attitude even in objectively hard times. Do you experience that mindset as a coping mechanism particular to nursing work, especially throughout the cialis?. AS.

I love Sunny’s term “toxic positivity.” I believe many nurses and leaders embrace this attitude in hard times, especially during the global erectile dysfunction treatment cialis. We are living in unprecedented times. Nurses are used to dealing with difficult situations. Often, they make comparisons looking for the bright side.

A nurse may be exhausted and may have lost 2-3 ICU patients in a day due to erectile dysfunction treatment but may say, “I am still alive,” grasping the positive in the midst of a difficult negative situation. In rural areas persons are dying at twice the rate of those in urban areas. Rural nurses are seeing members of their immediate community die. Having a positive attitude can help nurses cope, but the reality is undeniably bleak.

Repetitive emotional trauma is really impacting nurses and their families. Early in the cialis many people who died were vulnerable older adults prior to the treatment being available. Now it is mostly younger, unvaccinated adults. Many of these deaths are considered preventable if the person would have accepted the treatment.

It is senseless deaths of mostly younger persons that nurses are coping with now. A positive of this cialis is the recognition of the daily stressors and mental health impact on nurses and the creation of resiliency programs by employers and organizations, like the Well-being Initiative the American Nurses Association has developed. The program is available to all nurses, not just members. This interview first appeared in Path Finders, a weekly email newsletter from the Daily Yonder.

Each Monday, Path Finders features a Q&A with a rural thinker, creator, or doer. Join the mailing list today, to have these illuminating conversations delivered straight to your inbox. You Might Also Like.

erectile dysfunction treatment may no longer be surging widely across where can i get cialis the United States, but America’s hospitals are still experiencing a staffing crisis that where can you buy cialis over the counter is putting critical care for patients in jeopardy.Hospitals all over the country are struggling, especially those in lower-population areas. A new survey of rural hospitals from the Chartis Group, provided to Vox in advance of publication, reveals how deep the problem runs. Nearly 99 percent of rural where can i get cialis hospitals surveyed said they were experiencing a staffing shortage. 96 percent of them said they were having the most difficulty finding nurses.

Almost half of the hospitals in the survey said staffing problems had prevented them from accepting new patients in the past 60 days. One in four hospitals said that a where can i get cialis lack of nurses had forced them to suspend certain services, including, according to Michael Topchik, national leader of the Chartis Center for Rural Health. Newborn delivery, chemotherapy, and colonoscopies. Another one in five said they were considering it.

€œThe cialis has maxed out these hospitals,” Topchik told me, where can i get cialis “which means they are unable to provide services vital to the community.”Hospitals have gotten a lot better at handling erectile dysfunction treatment surges. They have more weapons at their disposal — antiviral drugs and monoclonal antibodies — and better understand which techniques are effective at preventing the disease from getting worse. Roberta Schwartz, chief innovation officer at Houston Methodist Hospital, told me while her hospital started shutting down services immediately during the first cialis wave, they were able to absorb more than 700 erectile dysfunction treatment patients during the most recent summer wave without compromising their other operations.But as flu season looms and cold weather threatens another erectile dysfunction treatment surge, two trends that would fill up hospital beds again, the staffing crisis isn’t easing.According to a September study commissioned by the American Hospital Association, the average cost of labor expenses for each discharged patient has grown by 14 percent in 2021 — even as the number of full-time employees has dropped by 4 percent.Hospitals, both rural and urban, are feeling the squeeze. Their workforces where can i get cialis are burned out.

Some staff members are still reluctant to take the erectile dysfunction treatment, even as some facilities start to impose mandates. And they are facing competition from traveling nursing companies that are offering better and better benefits to lure nurses away from permanent full-time jobs.With some services being shut down, patients in underserved areas may have to travel hours to larger facilities — hospitals that are experiencing their own staffing challenges and often run at near 100 percent capacity already.“There are nursing shortages nationwide, which means many hospitals can’t staff all their beds,” Karen Joynt Maddox, assistant professor of medicine at Washington University in St. Louis, told where can i get cialis me. €œThe big referral centers ...

Chronically operate at or above capacity, so any bumps in volume put additional strain on the system.” Burnout among the health care workforce remains acute 20 months into the cialis. About half of medical workers reported feeling burnout during 2020, according to a study from the American Medical Association where can i get cialis. Almost half of ICU nurses said in another survey earlier this year that they were considering leaving the profession.Nine in 10 rural hospital leaders said their concerns about staff burnout had increased over the course of 2021. In other words, the staffing crisis is getting worse, not better.“The workforce is burnt out.

The workforce is leaving,” said Beth Feldpush, senior vice president at America’s Essential where can i get cialis Hospitals. €œThe human capacity is more of an issue than physical capacity.”The average age of a nurse in the United States is 50. Some of those workers decided to retire early rather than push on through the most difficult working conditions of their career.”This is mental anguish,” Schwartz said. €œWe have an where can i get cialis aging workforce.

Some of them might have worked another year or two, but with a cialis, nope.”treatment hesitancy could end up making this difficult situation worse. Only about 25 percent of the rural hospitals surveyed by Chartis are instituting a treatment mandate (some of which have not yet taken effect), but, among those, about one in four expect a significant percentage of their staff — 5 percent or more — not to comply with the mandate. For some of where can i get cialis them, that would mean an automatic termination and another job opening that the hospital needs to fill.But that’s when the third problem squeezing hospitals complicates things. It’s getting harder to hire and retain nurses because many of them can earn a higher salary working as a traveling nurse, hired for a temporary period by a hospital facing a staffing crunch — and willing to pay the rising prices commanded by those workers.As NBC News reported last month, permanent nurses at rural hospitals make on average about $1,200 per week.

These days, some travel nursing firms are offering their workers more than $5,000 per week. €œThis has been a huge shift for many folks,” Mary Beth Kingston, chief nursing officer at a health system serving Illinois and Wisconsin, said in a panel discussion on the staffing crisis hosted by where can i get cialis the AHA. €œPeople are leaving their place of employment because this is a chance to increase their salary in a major way.”Traveling nurses have played an important role in the cialis. Hospital leaders say that, in essence, they needed to increase their workforce by 20 percent to handle erectile dysfunction treatment surges, and the travel firms helped to supply that excess staffing.

In the where can i get cialis Chartis survey, more than half of the hospitals said their use of travel nurses had increased “significantly” during the cialis, even though most of them used those workers only “rarely” prior to the current crisis.But that increase in demand has allowed travel nursing firms to offer those higher salaries and more generous benefits, which can lure nurses away from permanent employment. Hospital leaders describe a situation in which full-time nurses and traveling nurses are sitting side by side at a nursing station, with the latter telling the former how much money they are making in this new role.In the Chartis survey of rural health systems, hospital leaders named “more financially lucrative opportunities” as the No. 1 reason for their nurses leaving, followed by cialis burnout and retirement.There isn’t an where can i get cialis easy solution to the nursing crisis. The worrisome trends actually predate the cialis.

In 2018, a study in the American Journal of Medical Quality projected more nursing shortages to appear from 2016 to 2030, concentrated particularly in the South and the West.The aging workforce is part of the problem, and not enough students are enrolling in nursing school to offset those losses, according to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing.There are some provisions in Democrats’ pending Build Back Better legislation to support the health care workforce by forgiving loans for medical education, incentivizing more doctors and nurses to practice in underserved areas, and providing more funding to hospitals that run graduate education programs.But hospitals don’t believe it will be enough. They are preparing for a world in which erectile dysfunction treatment is endemic, a regular part of the medical calendar — and their staffs are still overstretched.“They are concerned with where can i get cialis the overlap of a winter surge and more flu circulating,” Feldpush said. €œThey do not expect to see any alleviation in staffing shortages or costs.” Will you support Vox’s explanatory journalism?. Millions rely on Vox’s journalism to understand the erectile dysfunction crisis.

We believe it pays off for all where can i get cialis of us, as a society and a democracy, when our neighbors and fellow citizens can access clear, concise information on the cialis. But our distinctive explanatory journalism is expensive. Support from our readers helps us keep it free for everyone. If you where can i get cialis have already made a financial contribution to Vox, thank you.

If not, please consider making a contribution today from as little as $3.Editor’s Note. This interview first appeared in Path Finders, an email newsletter from the Daily Yonder. Each week, Path Finders features a Q&A with a rural thinker, where can i get cialis creator, or doer. Like what you see here?.

You can join the mailing list at the bottom of this article and receive more conversations like this in your inbox each week. Last week, where can i get cialis the Daily Yonder published an article about the costs of well-paid travel nursing positions on rural healthcare systems. From staffing shortages, to hospital closures, to aging rural populations, the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis has clearly exposed and exacerbated some long standing problems within the incentive structures of healthcare work. I spoke with Audrey Snyder, who is the Associate Dean for Experiential Learning at the University of North Carolina Greensboro’s School of Nursing, and former president of the national Rural Nurse Organization—two roles which share the explicit goal of problem-solving in rural healthcare.

Enjoy our conversation where can i get cialis about travel nursing, treatment mandates, and toxic positivity, below. Olivia Weeks, The Daily Yonder. What are the incentives for nurses to work at rural hospitals right now?. What’s the staffing situation at rural hospitals generally? where can i get cialis.

Audrey Snyder. There are not a lot of incentives for nurses working at rural hospitals right now. Hospitals are trying to find small ways to express their gratitude to where can i get cialis nurses. Nurses in general have a positive feeling when they know they are caring for their own community.

Working in a small community can come with its own challenges since word of a person being ill can travel fast and nurses must maintain confidentiality even when someone may ask about a patient when they see the nurse in the community. Staffing is globally short though and nurses are overworked and feeling the strain of where can i get cialis the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis as it wears on. We have seen hospitals decreases their open bed numbers related to a lack of staffing. With recent increased cases with the delta variant surge some rural facilities have had difficulty transferring patients to a higher level of care because those facilities are also strained.

In 2020 during the cialis where can i get cialis there were 19 rural hospital closures and a few more have closed this year. We worry about future closures and the impact this will have on access read the full info here to care and the health of rural community. Rural residents will have to travel further where can i get cialis to access care. DY.

To what extent are rural nursing shortages due to discrete issues like treatment mandates and high-paying travel nursing positions, and to what extent are they the result of broader structural trends in rural life and economics?. Like this where can i get cialis story?. Sign up for our newsletter. AS.

In general there is a smaller population of people living in rural areas where can i get cialis and this means there are less people from rural communities going into healthcare professions, including nursing. We were in a nursing shortage prior to the cialis. The cialis just shed light on the challenge of rural facilities maintaining staff. Urban centers have where can i get cialis been pulling nurses to higher paying travel positions for a while.

With the cialis, this phenomenon has increased as urban areas who have had large erectile dysfunction treatment outbreaks are paying travel companies to staff their facilities. There are some rural areas with travel nurses also, but most rural hospitals cannot afford the high cost of travelers. When there where can i get cialis are traveling nurses in any facility, nurses on the payroll may get upset when they find out the salary the traveling nurses are making, which is often higher than the established facility nurse’s salary. Rural areas have lower erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination rates, and this may extend to healthcare providers as well.

With the federal mandate for health care professionals to be vaccinated for erectile dysfunction treatment hospitals may lose more nurses if the nurses refuse to be vaccinated. Many rural nurses’ families are embedded in the where can i get cialis rural community. Their family may farm for example. Taking a job at a distance could significantly impact home life and present challenges with being on the road daily.

For some younger nurses they may see travel nursing as a where can i get cialis means to see a distant part of the country and a way to pay off debt. DY. How do you attempt to encourage rural nursing at UNCG?. AS where can i get cialis.

Many of our nursing students come from rural areas. At UNCG we have clinical agreements for nursing students to train in many rural facilitates. One of our community health rotations where can i get cialis is in a rural elementary school focusing not just on school health but community health. Health disparities are amplified in rural communities, and this provides for teachable moments with nursing students.

We know that exposure to a rural environment while nursing students are in school can increase the likelihood that they will look at a rural community for work. We have collaborations with rural community colleges in the area to offer where can i get cialis Registered Nurse to BSN programs. Many nurses in rural areas train in Associate Degree programs locally at community colleges, but many hospitals want nurses who are trained at a bachelor’s level, especially if they are a Magnet hospital. The hospital may hire a nurse with an associate’s degree with an agreement that the nurse will obtain a bachelor’s degree within a certain time frame.

Attending a program close to their community decreases travel times for where can i get cialis these nurses. UNCG was awarded a four-year federal grant in July to help train nurse practitioners to work in rural and medically underserved communities. This grant is enhancing our doctorate of where can i get cialis nursing practice program and providing support to 16 of our Adult Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner students. We also have nurse anesthesia students in clinical rotations in rural hospitals.

Our hope is that exposure to rural communities, smaller rural hospitals and rural life may entice graduates to work in these areas. DY. What purpose is served by the Rural Nurse Organization and organizations like it?. AS.

The Rural Nurse Organization (RNO) serves as a voice for rural nurses, promotes awareness of rural health concerns, provides education on current topics for nurses and offers opportunities for collaboration on practice issues, research, leadership, and education. The RNO offer a conference every other year where nurses can come together to address all aspects of rural nursing. The Rural Nurse Organization is part of the Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations and in this position the organization advocates for local, state and national policies that improve public health, promoting equitable healthcare for all. Audrey Snyder is the Associate Dean for Experiential Learning at the University of North Carolina Greensboro’s School of Nursing.

(Photo courtesy of Snyder.) DY. All credit to my wonderful nurse friend Sunny for the term, but I’m wondering if you have thoughts on ‘toxic positivity,’ or the compulsion to maintain a positive attitude even in objectively hard times. Do you experience that mindset as a coping mechanism particular to nursing work, especially throughout the cialis?. AS.

I love Sunny’s term “toxic positivity.” I believe many nurses and leaders embrace this attitude in hard times, especially during the global erectile dysfunction treatment cialis. We are living in unprecedented times. Nurses are used to dealing with difficult situations. Often, they make comparisons looking for the bright side.

A nurse may be exhausted and may have lost 2-3 ICU patients in a day due to erectile dysfunction treatment but may say, “I am still alive,” grasping the positive in the midst of a difficult negative situation. In rural areas persons are dying at twice the rate of those in urban areas. Rural nurses are seeing members of their immediate community die. Having a positive attitude can help nurses cope, but the reality is undeniably bleak.

Repetitive emotional trauma is really impacting nurses and their families. Early in the cialis many people who died were vulnerable older adults prior to the treatment being available. Now it is mostly younger, unvaccinated adults. Many of these deaths are considered preventable if the person would have accepted the treatment.

It is senseless deaths of mostly younger persons that nurses are coping with now. A positive of this cialis is the recognition of the daily stressors and mental health impact on nurses and the creation of resiliency programs by employers and organizations, like the Well-being Initiative the American Nurses Association has developed. The program is available to all nurses, not just members. This interview first appeared in Path Finders, a weekly email newsletter from the Daily Yonder.

Each Monday, Path Finders features a Q&A with a rural thinker, creator, or doer. Join the mailing list today, to have these illuminating conversations delivered straight to your inbox. You Might Also Like.

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Dewsnap C, Sauer how long for cialis daily to work U, http://counterbalancebeer.com/carousels/ica/ Evans C. Sex Transm Infect 2020;96:79. Doi. 10.1136/sextrans-2019-054397This article was previously published with missing information.

Please note the below:The authors would like to acknowledge their gratitude to Daniel Richardson, Zara Haider, Ceri Evans, Janet Michaelis and Elizabeth Foley for providing a helpful format for this piece.Richardson D, Haider Z, Evans C, et al. The joint BASHH-FSRH conference. Sex Transm Infect 2017;93:380. Doi.

10.1136/sextrans-2017-053184Using cytokine expression to distinguish between active and treated syphilis. Promising but not yet ready for prime timeDistinguishing between previously treated and active syphilis can be challenging in the subset of treated patients with serofast status, defined as persistent non-treponemal seropositivity (<4-fold decline in rapid plasma reagin titre ≥6 months after treatment). The study investigated whether serum cytokine expression levels, measured with a 62-cytokine multiplex bead-based ELISA, can help guide clinical management. Using samples from patients with active, treated and serofast syphilis, the authors developed a two-cytokine (brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tumour necrosis factor β) decision tree that showed good accuracy (82%) and sensitivity (100%) but moderate specificity (45%).

While further studies will be needed to confirm and refine the diagnostic algorithm, there also remain important technical, operational and financial barriers to implementing such cytokine assays in routine care.Kojima N, Siebert JC, Maecker H, et al. The application of cytokine expression assays to differentiate active from previously treated syphilis. J Infect Dis. 2020 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 19].Global and regional prevalence of herpes simplex cialis type 2 .

Updated estimates for people aged 15–49 yearsEstimates of genital herpes simplex cialis (HSV) s across regions inform advocacy and resource planning and guide the development of improved control measures, including treatments. In 2016, HSV-2 affected 13% of the global population aged 15–49 years (high-risk groups excluded), totalling 491 million people. Of note, by excluding people aged >49 years, the analysis knowingly underestimated the true burden of HSV-2 .1 Prevalence showed a slight increase relative to 2012 and was highest in Africa and Americas and among women. Given the association between HSV-2 and subsequent HIV ,2 it is concerning that HSV-2 was estimated to affect ~50% of women aged 25–34 years in the African region.

The analysis also estimated the prevalence of genital HSV-1 (3%), but uncertainty intervals were wide.James C, Harfouche M, Welton NJ, et al. Herpes simplex cialis. Global prevalence and incidence estimates, 2016. Bull World Health Organ.

2020. 98. 315-329.Observed pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in women with HIV exposed to recommended antiretroviral regimensThis large Italian observational cohort study analysed data from 794 pregnant women who were exposed within 32 weeks of gestation to recommended antiretroviral regimens in the period 2008–2018. Treatment comprised three-drug combinations of an nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone plus a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (78%, predominantly atazanavir), an non-NRTI (NNRTI) (15%, predominantly nevirapine) or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI.

6%, predominantly raltegravir). No major differences were found for a wide range of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, including major congenital defects. The rate of HIV transmission ranged up to 2.4% in this study. This comprehensive evaluation will be useful for clinicians caring for women with HIV.

More outcome data are needed for regimens comprising second-generation INSTIs.Floridia M, Dalzero S, Giacomet V, et al. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in women with HIV-1 exposed to integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. An observational study. 2020;48:249–258.HIV status and sexual practice independently correlate with gut dysbiosis and unique microbiota signaturesGut dysbiosis may contribute to persistent inflammation in people with HIV (PWH) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART).

The study compared the gut microbiota of ART-treated PWH and HIV-negative controls matched for age, gender, country of birth, body mass index and sexual practice. Regardless of sex and sexual practice, the gut microbiota differed significantly in PWH vrsus controls, with expansion of proinflammatory gut bacteria and depletion of homeostasis-promoting microbiota members. The extent of dysbiosis correlated with serum inflammatory markers, nadir and pre-ART CD4 cell counts, and prevalence of non-infectious comorbidities. Further studies are warranted to elucidate causality and investigate microbiota-mediated strategies to alleviate HIV-associated inflammation.

Independent of HIV status, and in both men and women, receptive anal intercourse was associated with a unique microbiota signature.Vujkovic-Cvijin I, Sortino O, Verheij E, et al. HIV-associated gut dysbiosis is independent of sexual practice and correlates with non-communicable diseases. Nat Commun. 2020;11:2448.Reducing the cost of molecular STI screening in resource-limited settings.

An optimised sample-pooling algorithms with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are frequently asymptomatic and, if untreated, may lead to severe reproductive complications in women. Molecular testing is highly sensitive but costly, especially for resource-limited settings. This modelling study explored a sample pooling strategy for CT and NG testing among women in Zambia. Based on cross-sectional data, participants were stratified into high, intermediate and low prevalence groups, and the respective specimens were mathematically modelled to be tested individually, in pools of 3, or pools of 4, using the GeneXpert instrument.

Overall, the pooling strategy was found to maintain acceptable sensitivity (ranging from 80% to 100%), while significantly lowering cost per sample. Investigation in additional cohorts will validate whether the approach may increase access to STI screening where resourced are constrained.Connolly S, Kilembe W, Inambao M, et al. A population-specific optimized GeneXpert pooling algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae to reduce cost of molecular STI screening in resource-limited settings. J Clin Microbiol.

2020 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 10].Girl-only HPV vaccination can eliminate cervical cancer in most low and lower middle income countries by the end of the century, but must be supplemented by screening in high incidence countriesProgress towards the global elimination of cervical cancer must include effective interventions in lower-middle income countries (LMICs). The study modelled the effect over the next century of girls-only human papilloma cialis (HPV) vaccination with or without once-lifetime or twice-lifetime cervical screening in 78 LMICs, assuming 90% treatment coverage, 100% lifetime protection and screening uptake increasing from 45% (2023) to 90% (2045 onwards). Vaccination alone would substantially reduce cancer incidence (61 million cases averted) and achieve elimination (<5 cases per 100 000 women-years) in 60% of LMICs. However, high-incidence countries, predominantly in Africa, might not reach elimination by vaccination alone.

Adding twice-lifetime screening would achieve elimination of cervical cancer in 100% of LMICs. Results have informed the targets of 90% HPV vaccination coverage, 70% screening coverage and 90% of cervical lesions treated by 2030 recently announced by the WHO.Brisson M, Kim JJ, Canfell K, et al. Impact of HPV vaccination and cervical screening on cervical cancer elimination. A comparative modelling analysis in 78 low-income and lower-middle-income countries.

Dewsnap C, http://www.ec-martin-schongauer-strasbourg.ac-strasbourg.fr/theatre/?slideshow=katleen Sauer U, where can i get cialis Evans C. Sex Transm Infect 2020;96:79. Doi.

10.1136/sextrans-2019-054397This article was previously published with missing information. Please note the below:The authors would like to acknowledge their gratitude to Daniel Richardson, Zara Haider, Ceri Evans, Janet Michaelis and Elizabeth Foley for providing a helpful format for this piece.Richardson D, Haider Z, Evans C, et al. The joint BASHH-FSRH conference.

Sex Transm Infect 2017;93:380. Doi. 10.1136/sextrans-2017-053184Using cytokine expression to distinguish between active and treated syphilis.

Promising but not yet ready for prime timeDistinguishing between previously treated and active syphilis can be challenging in the subset of treated patients with serofast status, defined as persistent non-treponemal seropositivity (<4-fold decline in rapid plasma reagin titre ≥6 months after treatment). The study investigated whether serum cytokine expression levels, measured with a 62-cytokine multiplex bead-based ELISA, can help guide clinical management. Using samples from patients with active, treated and serofast syphilis, the authors developed a two-cytokine (brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tumour necrosis factor β) decision tree that showed good accuracy (82%) and sensitivity (100%) but moderate specificity (45%).

While further studies will be needed to confirm and refine the diagnostic algorithm, there also remain important technical, operational and financial barriers to implementing such cytokine assays in routine care.Kojima N, Siebert JC, Maecker H, et al. The application of cytokine expression assays to differentiate active from previously treated syphilis. J Infect Dis.

2020 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 19].Global and regional prevalence of herpes simplex cialis type 2 . Updated estimates for people aged 15–49 yearsEstimates of genital herpes simplex cialis (HSV) s across regions inform advocacy and resource planning and guide the development of improved control measures, including treatments. In 2016, HSV-2 affected 13% of the global population aged 15–49 years (high-risk groups excluded), totalling 491 million people.

Of note, by excluding people aged >49 years, the analysis knowingly underestimated the true burden of HSV-2 .1 Prevalence showed a slight increase relative to 2012 and was highest in Africa and Americas and among women. Given the association between HSV-2 and subsequent HIV ,2 it is concerning that HSV-2 was estimated to affect ~50% of women aged 25–34 years in the African region. The analysis also estimated the prevalence of genital HSV-1 (3%), but uncertainty intervals were wide.James C, Harfouche M, Welton NJ, et al.

Herpes simplex cialis. Global prevalence and incidence estimates, 2016. Bull World Health Organ.

2020. 98. 315-329.Observed pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in women with HIV exposed to recommended antiretroviral regimensThis large Italian observational cohort study analysed data from 794 pregnant women who were exposed within 32 weeks of gestation to recommended antiretroviral regimens in the period 2008–2018.

Treatment comprised three-drug combinations of an nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone plus a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (78%, predominantly atazanavir), an non-NRTI (NNRTI) (15%, predominantly nevirapine) or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI. 6%, predominantly raltegravir). No major differences were found for a wide range of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, including major congenital defects.

The rate of HIV transmission ranged up to 2.4% in this study. This comprehensive evaluation will be useful for clinicians caring for women with HIV. More outcome data are needed for regimens comprising second-generation INSTIs.Floridia M, Dalzero S, Giacomet V, et al.

Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in women with HIV-1 exposed to integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. An observational study. 2020;48:249–258.HIV status and sexual practice independently correlate with gut dysbiosis and unique microbiota signaturesGut dysbiosis may contribute to persistent inflammation in people with HIV (PWH) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART).

The study compared the gut microbiota of ART-treated PWH and HIV-negative controls matched for age, gender, country of birth, body mass index and sexual practice. Regardless of sex and sexual practice, the gut microbiota differed significantly in PWH vrsus controls, with expansion of proinflammatory gut bacteria and depletion of homeostasis-promoting microbiota members. The extent of dysbiosis correlated with serum inflammatory markers, nadir and pre-ART CD4 cell counts, and prevalence of non-infectious comorbidities.

Further studies are warranted to elucidate causality and investigate microbiota-mediated strategies to alleviate HIV-associated inflammation. Independent of HIV status, and in both men and women, receptive anal intercourse was associated with a unique microbiota signature.Vujkovic-Cvijin I, Sortino O, Verheij E, et al. HIV-associated gut dysbiosis is independent of sexual practice and correlates with non-communicable diseases.

Nat Commun. 2020;11:2448.Reducing the cost of molecular STI screening in resource-limited settings. An optimised sample-pooling algorithms with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are frequently asymptomatic and, if untreated, may lead to severe reproductive complications in women.

Molecular testing is highly sensitive but costly, especially for resource-limited settings. This modelling study explored a sample pooling strategy for CT and NG testing among women in Zambia. Based on cross-sectional data, participants were stratified into high, intermediate and low prevalence groups, and the respective specimens were mathematically modelled to be tested individually, in pools of 3, or pools of 4, using the GeneXpert instrument.

Overall, the pooling strategy was found to maintain acceptable sensitivity (ranging from 80% to 100%), while significantly lowering cost per sample. Investigation in additional cohorts will validate whether the approach may increase access to STI screening where resourced are constrained.Connolly S, Kilembe W, Inambao M, et al. A population-specific optimized GeneXpert pooling algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae to reduce cost of molecular STI screening in resource-limited settings.

J Clin Microbiol. 2020 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 10].Girl-only HPV vaccination can eliminate cervical cancer in most low and lower middle income countries by the end of the century, but must be supplemented by screening in high incidence countriesProgress towards the global elimination of cervical cancer must include effective interventions in lower-middle income countries (LMICs). The study modelled the effect over the next century of girls-only human papilloma cialis (HPV) vaccination with or without once-lifetime or twice-lifetime cervical screening in 78 LMICs, assuming 90% treatment coverage, 100% lifetime protection and screening uptake increasing from 45% (2023) to 90% (2045 onwards).

Vaccination alone would substantially reduce cancer incidence (61 million cases averted) and achieve elimination (<5 cases per 100 000 women-years) in 60% of LMICs. However, high-incidence countries, predominantly in Africa, might not reach elimination by vaccination alone. Adding twice-lifetime screening would achieve elimination of cervical cancer in 100% of LMICs.

Results have informed the targets of 90% HPV vaccination coverage, 70% screening coverage and 90% of cervical lesions treated by 2030 recently announced by the WHO.Brisson M, Kim JJ, Canfell K, et al. Impact of HPV vaccination and cervical screening on cervical cancer elimination. A comparative modelling analysis in 78 low-income and lower-middle-income countries.

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Campus Source cialis. JordanstownThe postholder will cialis contribute to the development and delivery of Diagnostic Radiography education and in particular Medical Ultrasound, through lecturing, practical sessions, placement and related professional and academic activity. S/he will also be required to develop a research profile in line with the strategy of the School’s Research Institute. (The post is available on cialis a full-time, part-time or job share basis).The School of Health Sciences holds a Bronze Athena SWAN Award in recognition of our commitment to advancing Gender equality.

You can read more about what cialis this means at www.ecu.ac.uk/equality-charters/athena-swan and on our University website get cialis https://www.ulster.ac.uk/peopleandculture/employee-benefits/equality-diversity/athena-swan. The University has a range of initiatives to support a family friendly working environment, including flexible working.We prefer to issue and receive applications via our on-line recruitment website by clicking Apply.Hard copy applications can be obtained by telephoning 028 7012 4072The University is an equal opportunities employer and welcomes applicants from all sections of the community, particularly from those with disabilities. Appointment will be made on merit.Closing Date cialis. 4 November 2020.

Campus view it now where can i get cialis. JordanstownThe postholder will contribute to the development and delivery where can i get cialis of Diagnostic Radiography education and in particular Medical Ultrasound, through lecturing, practical sessions, placement and related professional and academic activity. S/he will also be required to develop a research profile in line with the strategy of the School’s Research Institute. (The post is available on a full-time, part-time or job share where can i get cialis basis).The School of Health Sciences holds a Bronze Athena SWAN Award in recognition of our commitment to advancing Gender equality. You can read more about what this means at http://harap-lak.de/2017/10/25/mittag/ www.ecu.ac.uk/equality-charters/athena-swan where can i get cialis and on our University website https://www.ulster.ac.uk/peopleandculture/employee-benefits/equality-diversity/athena-swan.

The University has a range of initiatives to support a family friendly working environment, including flexible working.We prefer to issue and receive applications via our on-line recruitment website by clicking Apply.Hard copy applications can be obtained by telephoning 028 7012 4072The University is an equal opportunities employer and welcomes applicants from all sections of the community, particularly from those with disabilities. Appointment will be made on merit.Closing Date. 4 November 2020.

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August 26, generic cialis without prescription 2020Contact Kamagra tablets online. Eric Stann, 573-882-3346, StannE@missouri.eduCheryl S. Rosenfeld is generic cialis without prescription a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.Scientists at the University of Missouri have discovered possible biological markers that they hope could one day help identify the presence of an opioid use disorder during human pregnancy.Cheryl S.

Rosenfeld, an author on the study, said women often take opioids for pain regulation during pregnancy, including oxycodone, so it’s important to understand the effects of these drugs on the fetal placenta, a temporary organ that is essential in providing generic cialis without prescription nutrients from a mother to her unborn child. Rosenfeld is a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center and research generic cialis without prescription faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of pregnant women diagnosed with an opioid use disorder has quadrupled between 1999 and 2014.“Many pregnant women are being prescribed opioids — in particular OxyContin, or oxycodone — to help with the pain they can experience during pregnancy, and this can lead to opioid use disorders,” Rosenfeld said. €œMany women also don’t want to admit to taking these drugs, and we know that children born from mothers who have taken opioids during pregnancy experience post-birth conditions, such as low-birth weight.

But, so far no one has studied the potential ramifications of opioid use generic cialis without prescription during fetal life. Thus, we focused on the placenta because it is the main communication organ between the mother and her unborn child.”Previous studies examining these effects have used human cell cultures, but this is one of the first studies to use an animal model to examine how developmental exposure to these drugs affect the conceptus. In the study, Rosenfeld and her colleagues focused on how a mother’s use of oxycodone during her pregnancy can affect a mouse’s placenta. Mouse and human placentas are similar in many ways, generic cialis without prescription including having placenta-specific cells in direct contact with a mother’s blood.

They found the use of this drug during pregnancy can negatively affect the placenta’s structure, such as reducing and killing cells that produce by-products needed for normal brain development. In addition, generic cialis without prescription Rosenfeld said their findings show specific differences in genetic expressions between female and male placentas in response to maternal oxycodone exposure.“Our results show when mothers take oxycodone during pregnancy, it causes severe placental disruptions, including elevation of certain gene expressions,” Rosenfeld said. €œWe know what the normal levels should be and if there are any changes, then we know something might have triggered such effects. For instance, in response to material oxycodone exposure, generic cialis without prescription female placentas start increasing production of key genes essential in regulating material physiology.

However, in male placentas, we see some of these same genes are reduced in expression. These expression patterns could be potential biomarkers for detecting exposure to oxycodone use.”Rosenfeld said by studying this in an animal model, it allows scientists to see these changes quicker than if they were completing a comparable study in people, generic cialis without prescription because a pregnant mouse can give birth in 21 days compared to about nine months in people.“This also allows us to easily study other regions of the body, especially the brain of exposed offspring, that would be affected by taking these opioids,” Rosenfeld said. €œWe can then use this information to help epidemiologists identify behaviors that people should be looking at in children whose mothers have taken these opioids.”Rosenfeld suggests that opioids should be added to other widely discussed warning factors during pregnancy, such as smoking and drinking alcohol. She said short-term use of opioids by pregnant women, such as someone who has kidney stones, might not cause much of an effect on their pregnancy, generic cialis without prescription but that likely depends on when the mother is taking the drug while pregnant.

Future plans for this study include analyzing how offspring are affected once they are born.Rosenfeld’s research is an example of an early step in translational medicine, or research that aims to improve human health by determining the relevance of animal science discoveries to people. This research can provide the foundation for precision medicine, or personalized human health care. Precision medicine will be a generic cialis without prescription key component of the NextGen Precision Health Initiative — the University of Missouri System’s top priority — by helping to accelerate medical breakthroughs for both patients in Missouri and beyond.The study, “Maternal oxycodone treatment causes pathophysiological changes in the mouse placenta,” was published in Placenta, the official journal of the International Federation of Placenta Associations. Other authors include Madison T.

Green, Rachel generic cialis without prescription E. Martin, Jessica A. Kinkade, Robert generic cialis without prescription R. Schmidt, Nathan J.

Bivens and Jiude generic cialis without prescription Mao at MU. And Geetu Tuteja at Iowa State University.Funding was provided by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.First-of-its-kind study, based on a mouse model, finds living in a polluted environment could be comparable to eating a high-fat diet, leading to a pre-diabetic state CLEVELAND—Air pollution is the world’s leading environmental risk factor, and causes more than nine million deaths per year. New research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation shows air pollution may play generic cialis without prescription a role in the development of cardiometabolic diseases, such as diabetes.

Importantly, the effects were reversible with cessation of exposure. Researchers found that air pollution was a “risk factor for a risk factor” that generic cialis without prescription contributed to the common soil of other fatal problems like heart attack and stroke. Similar to how an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can lead to disease, exposure to air pollution could be added to this risk factor list as well. “In this study, we created an environment that mimicked a polluted day in New Delhi or Beijing,” said Sanjay Rajagopalan, MD, first author on the study, Chief of Cardiovascular Medicine at University Hospitals Harrington Heart and generic cialis without prescription Vascular Institute, and Director of the Case Western Reserve University Cardiovascular Research Institute.

€œWe concentrated fine particles of air pollution, called PM2.5 (particulate matter component <. 2.5 microns) generic cialis without prescription. Concentrated particles like this develop from human impact on the environment, such as automobile exhaust, power generation and other fossil fuels.” These particles have been strongly connected to risk factors for disease. For example, generic cialis without prescription cardiovascular effects of air pollution can lead to heart attack and stroke.

The research team has shown exposure to air pollution can increase the likelihood of the same risk factors that lead to heart disease, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the mouse model study, three groups were observed. A control group receiving clean filtered air, a group exposed to generic cialis without prescription polluted air for 24 weeks, and a group fed a high-fat diet. Interestingly, the researchers found that being exposed to air pollution was comparable to eating a high-fat diet.

Both the air pollution and high-fat diet groups showed insulin resistance and abnormal metabolism generic cialis without prescription – just like one would see in a pre-diabetic state. These changes were associated with changes in the epigenome, a layer of control that can masterfully turn on and turn off thousands of genes, representing a critical buffer in response to environmental factors. This study is the first-of-its-kind to compare genome-wide epigenetic changes in response to air pollution, compare and contrast these changes with that of eating an unhealthy diet, and examine the impact of air pollution cessation on these changes.“The good news is that these effects were reversible, at least in our experiments” generic cialis without prescription added Dr. Rajagopalan.

€œOnce the air pollution was removed from the environment, the mice appeared healthier and the pre-diabetic state seemed generic cialis without prescription to reverse.” Dr. Rajagopalan explains that if you live in a densely polluted environment, taking actions such as wearing an N95 mask, using portable indoor air cleaners, utilizing air conditioning, closing car windows while commuting, and changing car air filters frequently could all be helpful in staying healthy and limiting air pollution exposure.Next steps in this research involve meeting with a panel of experts, as well as the National Institutes of Health, to discuss conducting clinical trials that compare heart health and the level of air pollution in the environment. For example, if someone has a heart attack, should they be wearing an N95 mask or using a portable air filter at home during recovery?. Dr generic cialis without prescription.

Rajagopalan and his team believe that it is important to address the environment as a population health risk factor and continue to diligently research these issues. The authors also note that these findings should encourage policymakers to enact measures aimed at reducing air pollution.Shyam Biswal, PhD, generic cialis without prescription Professor in the Department of Environmental Health and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, is the joint senior author on the study. Drs. Rajagopalan and Biswal are co-PIs on the NIH grant that supported this work.###Rajagopalan, S., Biswal, S., et al.

€œMetabolic effects of air pollution exposure and reversibility.” Journal of Clinical Investigation. DOI. 10.1172/JCI137315. This work was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences TaRGET II Consortium grant U01ES026721, as well as grants R01ES015146 and R01ES019616..

August 26, where can i get cialis 2020Contact https://detailedbydesign.com/kamagra-tablets-online/. Eric Stann, 573-882-3346, StannE@missouri.eduCheryl S. Rosenfeld is a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary where can i get cialis Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.Scientists at the University of Missouri have discovered possible biological markers that they hope could one day help identify the presence of an opioid use disorder during human pregnancy.Cheryl S. Rosenfeld, an author on the study, said women often take opioids for pain regulation during pregnancy, including oxycodone, so it’s important to understand the effects of these drugs on the fetal placenta, a temporary organ that is essential in providing nutrients from a mother to her where can i get cialis unborn child.

Rosenfeld is a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of pregnant women diagnosed with an opioid use disorder has quadrupled between 1999 and 2014.“Many pregnant women are being prescribed opioids — in particular OxyContin, or oxycodone — to help with the pain they can experience during pregnancy, and this can lead to opioid use disorders,” Rosenfeld where can i get cialis said. €œMany women also don’t want to admit to taking these drugs, and we know that children born from mothers who have taken opioids during pregnancy experience post-birth conditions, such as low-birth weight. But, so far no one has where can i get cialis studied the potential ramifications of opioid use during fetal life. Thus, we focused on the placenta because it is the main communication organ between the mother and her unborn child.”Previous studies examining these effects have used human cell cultures, but this is one of the first studies to use an animal model to examine how developmental exposure to these drugs affect the conceptus.

In the study, Rosenfeld and her colleagues focused on how a mother’s use of oxycodone during her pregnancy can affect a mouse’s placenta. Mouse and human placentas are similar in many ways, including having placenta-specific cells where can i get cialis in direct contact with a mother’s blood. They found the use of this drug during pregnancy can negatively affect the placenta’s structure, such as reducing and killing cells that produce by-products needed for normal brain development. In addition, Rosenfeld said their findings show specific differences in genetic expressions between female and male placentas in response to maternal oxycodone exposure.“Our results show when mothers take oxycodone during where can i get cialis pregnancy, it causes severe placental disruptions, including elevation of certain gene expressions,” Rosenfeld said. €œWe know what the normal levels should be and if there are any changes, then we know something might have triggered such effects.

For instance, in response to material oxycodone exposure, female placentas start increasing production of key genes essential in regulating where can i get cialis material physiology. However, in male placentas, we see some of these same genes are reduced in expression. These expression patterns could be potential biomarkers for detecting exposure to oxycodone use.”Rosenfeld said by studying this in an animal model, it allows scientists to see these changes quicker than if they were completing a comparable study in people, because a pregnant mouse can give birth in 21 days compared to about nine months in people.“This also allows us to easily study other regions of the body, especially the brain of exposed offspring, that would be affected by taking these opioids,” Rosenfeld said where can i get cialis. €œWe can then use this information to help epidemiologists identify behaviors that people should be looking at in children whose mothers have taken these opioids.”Rosenfeld suggests that opioids should be added to other widely discussed warning factors during pregnancy, such as smoking and drinking alcohol. She said short-term use of opioids by pregnant women, such as someone who has kidney stones, might not cause much of an effect on their pregnancy, but that likely depends on when where can i get cialis the mother is taking the drug while pregnant.

Future plans for this study include analyzing how offspring are affected once they are born.Rosenfeld’s research is an example of an early step in translational medicine, or research that aims to improve human health by determining the relevance of animal science discoveries to people. This research can provide the foundation for precision medicine, or personalized human health care. Precision medicine will be a key component of the NextGen Precision Health Initiative — the University of Missouri System’s top priority — by helping to accelerate medical breakthroughs for both patients in Missouri and beyond.The study, “Maternal oxycodone treatment causes pathophysiological changes in the mouse placenta,” was published where can i get cialis in Placenta, the official journal of the International Federation of Placenta Associations. Other authors include Madison T. Green, Rachel E where can i get cialis.

Martin, Jessica A. Kinkade, Robert where can i get cialis R. Schmidt, Nathan J. Bivens and Jiude Mao where can i get cialis at MU. And Geetu Tuteja at Iowa State University.Funding was provided by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.First-of-its-kind study, based on a mouse model, finds living in a polluted environment could be comparable to eating a high-fat diet, leading to a pre-diabetic state CLEVELAND—Air pollution is the world’s leading environmental risk factor, and causes more than nine million deaths per year. New research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation shows air pollution may play a role in the development of cardiometabolic diseases, where can i get cialis such as diabetes. Importantly, the effects were reversible with cessation of exposure. Researchers found that air pollution was a “risk factor for a risk factor” that contributed to the common soil of other fatal problems like heart attack where can i get cialis and stroke. Similar to how an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can lead to disease, exposure to air pollution could be added to this risk factor list as well.

“In this study, where can i get cialis we created an environment that mimicked a polluted day in New Delhi or Beijing,” said Sanjay Rajagopalan, MD, first author on the study, Chief of Cardiovascular Medicine at University Hospitals Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, and Director of the Case Western Reserve University Cardiovascular Research Institute. €œWe concentrated fine particles of air pollution, called PM2.5 (particulate matter component <. 2.5 microns) where can i get cialis. Concentrated particles like this develop from human impact on the environment, such as automobile exhaust, power generation and other fossil fuels.” These particles have been strongly connected to risk factors for disease. For example, cardiovascular effects of air pollution can where can i get cialis lead to heart attack and stroke.

The research team has shown exposure to air pollution can increase the likelihood of the same risk factors that lead to heart disease, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the mouse model study, three groups were observed. A control where can i get cialis group receiving clean filtered air, a group exposed to polluted air for 24 weeks, and a group fed a high-fat diet. Interestingly, the researchers found that being exposed to air pollution was comparable to eating a high-fat diet. Both the air pollution and high-fat diet where can i get cialis groups showed insulin resistance and abnormal metabolism – just like one would see in a pre-diabetic state.

These changes were associated with changes in the epigenome, a layer of control that can masterfully turn on and turn off thousands of genes, representing a critical buffer in response to environmental factors. This study is the first-of-its-kind to compare genome-wide epigenetic changes in response to air pollution, compare and contrast these changes with that of eating an unhealthy diet, where can i get cialis and examine the impact of air pollution cessation on these changes.“The good news is that these effects were reversible, at least in our experiments” added Dr. Rajagopalan. €œOnce the where can i get cialis air pollution was removed from the environment, the mice appeared healthier and the pre-diabetic state seemed to reverse.” Dr. Rajagopalan explains that if you live in a densely polluted environment, taking actions such as wearing an N95 mask, using portable indoor air cleaners, utilizing air conditioning, closing car windows while commuting, and changing car air filters frequently could all be helpful in staying healthy and limiting air pollution exposure.Next steps in this research involve meeting with a panel of experts, as well as the National Institutes of Health, to discuss conducting clinical trials that compare heart health and the level of air pollution in the environment.

For example, if someone has a heart attack, should they be wearing an N95 mask or using a portable air filter at home during recovery?. Dr where can i get cialis. Rajagopalan and his team believe that it is important to address the environment as a population health risk factor and continue to diligently research these issues. The authors also note that these findings should encourage policymakers to enact measures aimed at reducing air pollution.Shyam Biswal, PhD, Professor in where can i get cialis the Department of Environmental Health and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, is the joint senior author on the study. Drs.

Rajagopalan and Biswal are co-PIs on the NIH grant that supported this work.###Rajagopalan, S., Biswal, S., et al where can i get cialis. €œMetabolic effects of air pollution exposure and reversibility.” Journal of Clinical Investigation. DOI. 10.1172/JCI137315. This work was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences TaRGET II Consortium grant U01ES026721, as well as grants R01ES015146 and R01ES019616..